Summary: MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (8th ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page.
MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (8th ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page.
In 2010, the National Writing Project--despite its amazing reputation as an effective provider of professional development that changes teachers' practices--had its budget horribly slashed. With just barely enough money to keep its basic functions going, our local Northern Nevada Writing Project had to stop providing sponsorship to WritingFix. It was too bad too. We had some great new directions planned for the website, but there was no money available to implement those plans. Keeping a popular website online can be expensive (about $1200 a year).
WritingFix's best growth happened during the time I served as Director of the Northern Nevada Writing Project: 2002-2007. Being Director allowed me to seek out new grant monies, and it was so helpful to already have a tried-and-tested "make and take" model of inservice ready to share with the potential grantors I met with. Our NNWP was pursuing some pretty innovative ideas for new, research-driven inservice courses back then. With a promise to the grantors that a brand new webpage of teacher-built lessons and resources would be one of the outcomes of the class if they helped us pay for it, we impressed a lot of people, and we did some pretty great stuff with the grants we then earned. In a very short period of time, we doubled and then tripled the number of lessons and resources posted at WritingFix, and we kept being discovered more and more teacher followers who eventually saw us as one of the best places to go if you wanted an innovative idea for teaching writing. One of my favorite grants we earned bought all 100 class participants a classroom iPod; in exchange for this small piece of technology, participants simply had to design and implement a writing lesson based on the lyrics of a song. We hired some of our best K-12 NNWP teacher-presenters to write "model lessons" that used songs as their "mentor texts," we paid those presenters stipends to come share their lessons with our classes' participants, we selected the very best lessons written by those same class participants, and--with permission--we posted those lessons (alongside our presenters' lessons) at our "" at WritingFix. It was a pretty creative way to enhance an already-established website, and our writing project's reputation as a professional development provider soared to new heights both locally and nationally. At the local level, we had never been asked to provide so many courses and workshops as we were during these years; at the national level, we were admired as writing project site that had used the Internet to create a well-respected national presence. "Oh, you're from Nevada," other writing project members would say to me at conferences. "You guys have that really great website." WritingFix became that place where inspired teachers were sharing inspiring lessons and ideas.
I have been fortunate in that I have had so many great mentors over my 25-year teaching career. From these amazing and generous mentors, I borrowed and adapted writing strategies and teaching ideas, and then I began sharing those adaptations with other educators during inservice courses which I was designing--mostly to pay the bills that earning my Master's Degree had created for me. Back in 1999, I was one of the first teacher-trainers in our area to provide electronic resources before, during and after teacher inservice courses. For ten years after establishing WritingFix, my wife (Dena) and I continued to design inservice courses that were purposefully different; in them, teachers were required to collaborate and actually design new lessons they would implement with their own students so that they might ask our inservice's other participants for revision advice. Through this "make-and-take" style of teacher workshop, I saw some truly great lessons being created; I also saw some stinkers, and it's important to be honest about that. The teacher-built lessons that were truly outstanding, well, they needed to be shared. Dena and I had been stocking WritingFix with our own inservice materials and student samples, and now it was time to ask teacher participants if they would mind us including the lessons they had created at the WritingFix website too. Some were so excited to be asked. Some were too shy to grant permission to post them, which makes sense if you think that, in its heyday, WritingFix was receiving over 20,000 hits a day from teachers across the globe looking for good writing lessons. That kind of traffic can be intimidating.
Dena and I are both still creating new lessons and posting them online at our own websites. You can find our newest, Common Core-friendly resources for writing instruction at Corbett's website and Dena's website. Both of us are still WritingFix users. Corbett, who is currently teaching gifted and talented 6th-12th graders, shares his four favorite WritingFix resources below; Dena, who is a K-8 Writing Specialist, shares her four favorite resources below. We hope you find time to explore them!
With our NNWP's economic "crash," all planned growth for WritingFix went directly to the back-burner, and it has now remained there for so long that I am convinced the WritingFix website is a "completed" project. WritingFix, however, should NOT go away; Dena and I decided that we would take over paying the bill for all annual fees that keep the website online and free-to-use. The lessons that were created and posted between 2000 and 2010 were very good and deserve to be housed on the Internet for all teachers to find and use; we know there are brand new teachers out there just discovering WritingFix for the first time, and they deserve to have access to these resources. Perhaps some day, a grantor will read this page and send Dena and me a sizeable check so that we can organize and give WritingFix another chance at another heyday, but we doubt that will happen. We are ultimately happy with what the website became during the ten years that we had support and funding to keep it alive and strong.
In the two examples above “Herzog” from the first entry and “Yates” from the second lead the reader to the first item each citation’s respective entry on the Works Cited page:
While in its heyday, WritingFix was truly one of the most exciting projects I've ever been involved with. I ultimately watched hundreds and hundreds of our local K-12 teachers collaborate and implement research-based strategies in new lessons we asked them to create in exchange for recertification credit. Face to face in class, they inspired each other while sharing these lessons, and then the lessons we chose to post at the website went on to be used by tens of thousands of WritingFix's national and international followers.
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