Another mark shows the letter "S" placed to one side of a circle;another symmetrically placed letter has apparently fallen off themold:If a researcher is fortunate and matches a watermark with anidentical published mark, then the date and place of use of thecited paper sheet can be used to infer a time period for the use ofthe paper mold which made both sheets.
ARCHES Bright White is a recent addition to the line, following a growing industry trend toward whiter supports. (Sheets marketed as "bright white" should only be used after you consider warning that they usually contain more chemical additives, and are more likely to change color or deteriorate over time.) Papers are mouldmade, 100% cotton, acid free, surface sized with gelatin (the HP sheets are also internally sized), air dried, with two natural deckles, carrying both the "Arches France" with infinity symbol watermark and a curved "Arches Aquarelle" embossed chop. Now available from many direct order retailers (including , , and ) as single sheets or packs in 300 or 640 weights. Price of a single 300 full sheet is about US$3.20.
ARCHES Aquarelle papers are among the most popular watercolor supports in the world. Papers are mouldmade, 100% cotton, acid free, surface sized with gelatin (the HP sheets are also internally sized) and air dried (the largest sheets show dime sized crush marks in the corners, created by the wooden clips used to hang the sheets for loft drying). There are two natural deckles, and sheets are marked both with the "Arches France" (with infinity symbol) watermark and a curved "Arches Aquarelle" embossed chop; the watermark and chop read from the wire side. The rattle is loud and bright (almost metallic) indicating excellent pulp maceration; the paper burns to a fibrous, silvery gray ash. Available in white sheets, in five weights from 185 to 850 , and in rolls or the popular watercolor blocks in weights of 185 and 300 . Price of a single 300 full sheet is about US$3.20.
The Rough finish (grain torchon in French) is a relatively mild texture for a rough sheet (and is slightly rougher on the wire side). Color is ivory, one of the warmest sheets tested, which made the ultramarine wash appear slightly dull. The sizing is relatively light, causing some blossoming in the magenta strokes; washes went on smoothly with no banding in the cobalt pigment, but the brush was exhausted fairly quickly and pigment texture was suppressed. Scrubbing left noticeable streaking; resists came off cleanly, but color lifted only with difficulty by scrubbing, and seriously damaged the paper surface (causing extensive wicking at the edge of repainted areas). The Cold Pressed finish (grain fin) has a very subdued texture excellent for detailed work, though there are somewhat deeper depressions streaked throughout the sheet, parallel to the grain (again, the tooth is noticeably rougher on the wire side). Color is warm, a pale ivory, as dark as the R sheet. The sizing is relatively light; the sheet takes washes very evenly but exhausts the brush slightly more than usual. Gently displays pigment textures (although the cobalt violet caused some banding), and there was slight blossoming in the magenta stripes. Scrubbing left very noticeable streak marks; the green lifted completely with no damage to the paper surface or visible in the repainted area. Resists lifted cleanly and left a crisp edge. The Hot Pressed finish (grain satiné) is extremely smooth, with no perceptible texture on the felt side (the wire has a slight eggshell texture), although the finish in the heavier weight (640 ) is coarser. Miniscule tufts of fiber jut out across the surface, giving the paper a slightly gritty roughness to touch; these fibers trap grainy pigments such as ultramarine blue or the cobalt blues, creating a speckled effect in washes. Color is a dull ivory white, slightly warmer than other HP sheets. The sizing is moderately heavy so a charge of paint covered a large area; washes showed noticeable banding and blossoming of color edges, but only moderate blossoming in the magenta; the fiber tufts caught pigment to create a slight stippling effect. Resists lifted cleanly; scrubbing left slight streaks that enhanced pigment texture; the green lifted completely but with a roughening of the surface that caused a slight wicking in repainted edges.
It is considered characteristic of the ItalianPiedmont and Swiss mills, and probably results from the manner inwhich the chain line wires are attached to wooden slats below themold surface, as discussed in an article by Theo Gerardy.In summary, we must exactly match a detailed image of watermarkto a watermark of known place and date of use in order to say wehave identified it.
Uncoated paper is generally used for letterhead, envelopes and printed material that is aiming for a more prestigious or elegant look. Watermarked paper is an identifying image or pattern in paper that appears as various shades of lightness or darkness when viewed by transmitted light or when viewed by reflected light, which is caused by thickness or density variations in the paper. If you hold the paper up to the light, you should be able to see an identifying mark or brand coming through the paper.When it comes to stationery, a watermark is perceived as being elegant and sophisticated.