– This subject aims to studycriminology as a form of social science with the intention ofpreventing crime through the understanding of the why and what ofcrimes and criminals.
A felony can be defined as a serious crime that is punishable by at least a year’s jail-term whereas a misdemeanor is a crime whose punishment is either a fine or and up to a year in jail (Smith, 2008).
Both Plato and Aristotle were rationalists as regards both humanknowledge and moral reasons, and what they say about the virtue ofjustice clearly reflects the commitment to rationalism. Muchsubsequent thinking about justice (especially in the Middle Ages) wasinfluenced by Plato and Aristotle and likewise emphasized the role ofreason both in perceiving what is just and in allowing us to actjustly rather than to give in to contrary impulses or desires. Aquinasfor example largely defends Aristotle’s account of justice,including Aristotle’s distinction between general and particularjustice, and similarly grounds justice in a kind of proportionalityamong people.
But to the extent Christian writers allied themselves with Plato andAristotle, they were downplaying another central element in Christianthought and morality, the emphasis on agapic love. Such love seems tobe a matter of motivationally active feeling rather than of beingrational, and some writers on morality (eventually) allowed this sideof Christianity to have a major influence on what they had to sayabout virtue.
This subject dealswith the theories of the why, the what, and the how of crime andthere are multiple good criminal justice research topics tochoose from.
Nowadays, near the close of the twentieth century, moral andpolitical disorders bring grave confusion about the meanings of oldwords. As T. S. Eliot wrote in "Burnt Norton" -- Words strain,
We cannot say there is a formal definition of the microservices architectural style, but we can attempt to describe what we see as common characteristics for architectures that fit the label. As with any definition that outlines common characteristics, not all microservice architectures have all the characteristics, but we do expect that most microservice architectures exhibit most characteristics. While we authors have been active members of this rather loose community, our intention is to attempt a description of what we see in our own work and in similar efforts by teams we know of. In particular we are not laying down some definition to conform to.
All confusion about the meaning of the word "justice"notwithstanding, the latest edition of the Encyclopedia Britannicacontains no article under the heading "Justice." Yet there is asuccinct article about justices of the peace, of whose number Ionce was one, before the state of Michigan swept away that highoffice. My lecture today may be regarded as the attempt of a fool,rushing in where the angelic Britannica fears to tread. Yetpossibly the nature of justice may be apprehended by a mere quondamjustice of the peace: for the fundamental purpose of law is to keepthe peace. "Justice is the ligament which holds civilized beingsand civilized nations together," said Daniel Webster at the funeralof Justice Joseph Story, in 1845; and so say I today.
Hume saw (or believed he saw), however, that individual justice atleast sometimes conflicts with what benevolence or even a simplisticprudence would motivate us to do. He is as much a sentimentalist asHutcheson, believing that judgments about virtue and rightness dependon our passions rather than on some form of reason (or on a distinctmoral sense). But he thinks that the sentimentalist owes us an accountof how a sense of justice that is sometimes opposed to benevolence,sympathy, and apparent self-interest can nonetheless develop out ofsuch motives. Motives like benevolence, curiosity, sympathy, andprudence Hume calls natural in the twofold sense that they exist apartfrom social convention(s) and that they do not require explicitlyethical thinking (or conscience) or in order to issue in action. Butthe virtue of justice is not natural, but rather should be considered“artificial,” according to Hume, because it depends for itsexistence on human conventions and artifices and because the primarymotive to justice is a reflective recognition of its necessity forsocial life (Hume 1751).
You flatter and honor me today by this opportunity to share whatI believe is the significance of that pledge, to visit with you anddiscuss the meaning of American citizenship, America's passion forfairness, matters relating to that delicate subject of race, andwhy I believe the time is at hand for us to pursue a new coursewith regard to what we call "affirmative action."
But perhaps, ladies and gentlemen, I proceed too fast; I shallhave more to say a little later about the Christian concept ofjustice. Just now a little about the classical idea of justice. Theclassical definition, which comes to us through Plato, Aristotle,Saint Ambrose, and Saint Augustine of Hippo, is expressed in asingle phrase: suum cuique, or "to each his own." As this is put inJustinian's Corpus Juris Civilis, "Justice is a habit whereby a manrenders to each one his due with constant and perpetual will."Aristotle instructs us that the prevalence of injustice makes clearthe meaning of justice. Also Aristotle remarks that it is unjust totreat unequal things equally -- a principle to which I shall returnin my later lectures. Of the virtue called justice, Saint Augustinedeclares, "Justice is that ordering of the soul by virtue of whichit comes to pass that we are no man's servant, but servants of Godalone."
Upon such ancient postulates, classical or Christian, rests ourwhole elaborate edifice of law here in these United States -- eventhough few Americans know anything about the science ofjurisprudence. For public order is founded upon moral order, andmoral order arises from religion -- a point upon which I mean totouch later in this talk of mine. If these venerable postulates areflouted or denied -- as they have been denied by the Marxists inthe present century, and were denied by sophists in Plato's time --then arbitrary power thrusts justice aside, and "they shall takewho have the power, and they shall keep who can."