November 2005: These ideas first appeared in a preliminaryworking paper called "The Value of Information in Growth andDevelopment," as the second half of that paper.
It is often a good idea to include a map (labeled as a Figure) showing the study location in relation to some larger more recognizable geographic area.
Version 3.0 of this paper also had a different title,"Fundamental Determinants of Output per Worker across Countries."On the Evolution of the World Income Distribution Journal of Economic Perspectives, Summer 1997, Vol.
Included in the discussion are : a solar system's definition, the Sun's composition, properties of all nine known planets, man's efforts to explore the solar system, and more...All terms are defined and plenty of statistical information is included.
Therefore, the determinants of long-run growth highlighted bya specific growth model must similarly exhibit no large persistentchanges, or the persisten movement in these variables must beoffsetting.
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This paper builds a model to quantify these forces and shows that theysubstantially amplify distortions to the allocation of resources,bringing us closer to understanding large income differences acrosscountries.
In the mouse behavior paper, for example, you would begin the Introduction at the level of mating behavior in general, then quickly focus to mouse mating behaviors and then hormonal regulation of behavior.
The length of your Abstract should be kept to about 200-300 words maximum (a typical standard length for journals.) Limit your statements concerning each segment of the paper (i.e.
Our results—that long-term benefits of physical activity on all major types of mortality were not moderated by exposure to high levels of NO2—are novel. This may imply that acute stress and damage to the cardiovascular system induced by short-term exposure to air pollution during exercise, in terms of vascular impairment, arterial stiffness, and reduced blood flow, as shown in earlier studies (; ; ), seem to be transient and reversible and do not abate long-term benefits of physical activity on mortality. Our results may furthermore be explained by the short duration of the physical activities, with mean of 2–3 hr/week for most activities (); this implies that extra inhaled dose of air pollution during physical activity, which is a function of increased inhalation and duration, is only a small fraction of total inhaled dose of air pollution (), and is therefore not sufficient to increase the risk of premature mortality. Our results are furthermore in line with a study finding significantly lower levels of physical activity on days with poor air quality among respiratory disease patients, but not in cardiovascular patients, who do not seem immediately enough bothered by air pollution to change their outdoor physical activity habits (; ). Our study thus may imply that effects of long-term exposure to NO2 and physical activity on overall and cardiovascular mortality are independent of each other, with benefits of outdoor physical activity not being reduced by exposure to NO2.
For example, in a paper reporting on an experiment involving dosing mice with the sex hormone estrogen and watching for a certain kind of courtship behavior,
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(More info on the used to format this paper.) One of the most important developments in the growth literature of the last decade is the enhanced appreciation of the role that the misallocation of resources plays in helping us understand income differences across countries.
Strengths of our study include a large prospective cohort, with well-defined and validated information on physical activity and air pollution exposure, both of which have been linked to mortality (; , ). We furthermore benefited from the state-of-the art information on individual exposure to NO2 with high spatial (address-specific) and temporal (annual mean) resolution, assessed over 35 years. Another strength of this cohort is the very high prevalence of cycling (68%), both leisure and utilitarian (e.g., to work, shopping); this provided the data for evaluation of an interaction of air pollution with this type of physical activity, in contrast to existing studies on cycling to work (; ; , ). Furthermore, this is the first cohort study to evaluate individual-level benefits of physical activity in an urban cohort while also considering individual exposure to air pollution. A study of short-term effects of air pollution on mortality in Hong Kong, which has several-fold higher levels of air pollution than in Copenhagen, found that those who exercised regularly had reduced susceptibility to acute effects of air pollution and lower mortality than those who did not exercise (). Our study provides a novel approach in contrast to existing health impact assessment studies. Our study estimated benefits versus risks of increased physical activity, typically by evaluating active travel policies targeted to shift commuters from car use to cycling, on a population level, based on derivation of risk estimates from different studies and hypothetical scenarios (; ; , , ).