But watermarks on large art papers mayfrequently not be published at all because some paper historianssuch as Briquet and Voorn have focussed their studies on manuscriptsin archives.
Voorn notes that the watermarks on large-sized papersare generally not represented in Dutch archives. Other paper historians such asHeawood and Churchi11 however did examine watermarks on printsand maps and thus can be more useful in studying watermarks in largeart papers.
The first paper mill in Tennessee is so elusive that ithas entirely escaped the notice of Dard Hunter andother paper historians. I believe that it was in operationas early as 1808, when the Jonesboro merchant DavidDeaderick ordered an assortment of moulds (often a...
[Note: This issue of Investigación y Tecnica del Papel has five other papers on the history, reproduction and registration of watermarks.] (1E4) [Cited from the vol.
Essays and separate detailed bibliographies are included on paperhistory in France and Belgium, Switzerland, England, and the rest ofEurope, as well as Supplementary Literature to Briquet since 1907.
Hamden,Connecticut: Archon Books, 1978An attempt at a comprehensive international bibliography on thehistory of handmade paper, this book lists almost 2,200 articlesunder five broad categories from both English and non-English booksand journals.
He points out that currentpaper research sees the basis of paper history to lie not in datingthe watermark per se, but instead dating a sheet of paper producedby a specific mold.
Hilversum: The Paper PublicationsSociety, 1956This watermark reference book includes an annotated bibliographyof publications on watermarks and historical profiles of many commonwatermarks, with 765 illustrations, mostly of Central Europeanwatermarks.
usually a vellum sheet would form the outer, or the outer and inner, leaves of a quire while the rest were paper.
(Stutermeister 1954, 11)Paper Making In Italy
Papermaking in Italy is dominated by the historic and powerful feudal family, Fabriano.
produces a digital infrastructure for the expertise and history of paper based on images visualizing the paper's structure. The individual ressources are databases of watermarks and other anotated features, image measurement software, contextual resources for cartography and bibliography, and an integrated workspace. Additionnaly the Consortium organizes tutorials and an exhibition on paper studies.
An English appendix "The Paper Mills inthe Provincie of North-Holland" includes an excellent sectionentitled "Filigranology as an auxiliary science in the aid ofhistory." Voorn's methods of studying papers in archives makes hiswatermark dates more certain, but means watermarks on paper commonlyused for fine art are not always represented.
I haveincluded an annotated bibliography of some useful reference books aswell as a few articles by some of the foremost current researchersin paper history.
The mill seems to have been a prominent and impressive riverside feature:
This is so fine with workmanship set foorth
So surely built, and planted in the ground
That it doth seeme a house of some estate
To which brave mill do thousands still repayre
So see what things are wrought, by cunning skill,'
Churchyard's poem gives some indication of the paper making process employed at Dartford : A Paper-mill
That now neere Dartford standeth well
Where Spilman may himself and household dwell
The Mill itself is sure right rare to see
The framing is so quaint and finely done
Built of wood and hollowed trunks of trees
The Hammers thump and make so loud a noise
As fuller doth that beats his woollen cloth
In open show, then Sundry secret toyes
Make rotten rags to yield a thickened froth
There it is stamped and washed as white as snow
Then flung on frame and hanged to dry, I trow
Thus paper straight it is to write upon
As it were rubbed and smoothed with slicking stoneThe Dartford-based mill was granted extensive monopoly powers that were often the subject of dispute.
This chapter is a brief look at some important types of paper throughout history. While the type and age of the paper can help determine the authenticity of a print, it is not in and of itself proof.