usually a vellum sheet would form the outer, or the outer and inner, leaves of a quire while the rest were paper.
(Stutermeister 1954, 11)Paper Making In Italy
Papermaking in Italy is dominated by the historic and powerful feudal family, Fabriano.
An English appendix "The Paper Mills inthe Provincie of North-Holland" includes an excellent sectionentitled "Filigranology as an auxiliary science in the aid ofhistory." Voorn's methods of studying papers in archives makes hiswatermark dates more certain, but means watermarks on paper commonlyused for fine art are not always represented.
(The streaky brush marks are very evident in the glazed surface of the paper in his codices.) The same papers were used by some of his contemporaries at Philotheou, but not all of them glazed the paper first.
For these reasons, therefore, when attempting to match one paper with another, it is necessary to compare the other physical features of the two papers in question to confirm that a match has been found.
In October 1806 George Waring of Columbia, SouthCarolina, purchased several pairs of moulds, a typicalassortment of sizes one might obtain for a newly completedpaper mill. In November he wrote to RichardWaring in Charleston, announcing that he had built...
Like other colonial printers, William Bradford took aspecial interest in the sources of his supplies. He helpedto establish not only the first paper mill in Pennsylvaniabut also the first one in New Jersey. After clashingwith the Quaker authorities in Pennsylvania, Bradfordmoved his printing business to a more congenial...
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Sometimes this usage was varied; for example, papers were sometimes made with double watermarks so that when the sheet of paper was folded, each folio showed a watermark in the center.| |Beginning in the sixteenth century, in addition to these watermarks, many papers also were given smaller, secondary marks called countermarks.
In the papermaking work rhythm, the vatmanimmersed one mold in the vat while the coucher, his partner, couchedthe previously formed sheet off the other mold onto felts.
The medieval process of normally required the useof two or more moulds for each batch of paper. The moulds would start out moreor less identical, but would develop variations in the position of their variouselements over time. The watermarks on each mould would initially be as similaras the artisan could make them, but no two shapes formed from wire could beexactly the same, so even when new the watermarks on each mold would be somewhatdifferent. This difference can be used to determine the minimum number of mouldsthat were used to produce a given batch of paper; in the case of the Lydgatemanuscript that minimum number is two.
William Parks, printer of the Virginia Gazette, builtthe first paper mill in Virginia with the advice and assistanceof Benjamin Franklin, who supplied rags, felts,moulds, and skilled personnel. Through Franklin, Parksobtained the services of Conrad Scheetz, a German immigrant...
In codices, they usually appear on one of the outer corners of the folio, if they have not been trimmed off in the course of binding and rebinding the codex.| |Papermakers usually worked with pairs of matched molds, so that the mold most recently dipped into the pulp could be draining while the newly formed paper was being removed from the other.
The first paper mill in the American colonies was builtby William Rittenhouse (also Wilhelm Rittinghausenor Rittinghuysen) in partnership with linen draper andlandowner Robert Turner, ironmonger Thomas Tresse,and printer William Bradford. Born in Broich near Mülheim...
Frequently the two matched watermarks will occur in each gathering of a codex in alternation, just as they were made by the papermaker.The paper-making process was hard on the molds, and especially on the filigrees that produced watermarks.