Likewise, as one type of paper is used up and others replace it, a chain of profiles is produced, analogous to the chain of watermark pairs mentioned above, which can establish a relative dating of codices produced in that scriptorium.| |Establishing that one paper matches another is not easy, given the intentional similarity among watermarks, the short life-span of any one filigree, the the liklihood that it would be replaced by a new one made to look like the first.
In cases like this, the physical features other than watermarks and the chain and wire lines may be the result of how papers were treated prior to their use by a scribe or a center of book production.
However the watermark originated, this new development in papermaking technology was quickly adapted to new functions by the paper factories, which began using them as "trademarks" and to distinguish different grades or batches of paper.
Watermarks were made by bending pieces of wire into filigree designs (French: filigrane) and tying them onto the wire mesh which served as the bottom of the paper mold.
Sometimes this usage was varied; for example, papers were sometimes made with double watermarks so that when the sheet of paper was folded, each folio showed a watermark in the center.| |Beginning in the sixteenth century, in addition to these watermarks, many papers also were given smaller, secondary marks called countermarks.
(Read on, for .) While this archive includes prints of some examples of Arabic paper, it is primarily watermarked papers which will be found here.European paper was made in a rectangular mold something like a tray, consisting of a frame (deckle) which determined the size of the paper, and a bottom made of a wire mesh.
(This could be back-breaking work for the laborer in the paper factory, for the mold full of paper pulp was heavy, and the larger the sheet of paper, the heavier.) As the remaining liquid in the pulp drained out through wire mesh, the pattern of the mesh was imprinted in the paper as thin spots which remain visible today when the paper is held up to the light.| |From the thirteenth century on, Greek manuscripts were written increasingly on watermarked paper imported from Italy, and soon from other sources in Western Europe.
All of these early papers were unwatermarked; they are recognizable from other physical characteristics such as color, consistency and characteristic patterns of the lines visible in the paper.
Frequently the two matched watermarks will occur in each gathering of a codex in alternation, just as they were made by the papermaker.The paper-making process was hard on the molds, and especially on the filigrees that produced watermarks.
And then - judgoing from the papers being produced at this point in time they appeared to be triplets.... These vicissitudes in the lives of the filigree twins resulted in some variations in the normal pattern of matched pairs of watermarks in lots of paper or in gatherings of codices.
Taking its name from the embossed stamp on paper, a watermark is a text or graphic image that overlaps an existing text or graphic image without obstructing it. Watermarks can be used to indicate the confidentiality of reports, whether invoices have been paid or who owns the graphic images displayed on a Web site. Following are instructions for how to make a watermark in Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excel and your graphic editor.
In such cases, two unlike watermarks might appear as an unmatched pair, typically alternating in the gatherings of a codex in the same fashion as watermarks made by legitimate filigree twins, but neither one having a twin mark.| | When enough examples of a particular watermark are documented - which is the purpose of the present watermark archive - it is possible to establish a relative dating of the paper on the basis of the gradual deterioration of the watermark and the chain of replacement watermarks.
For example, a questioned document that purports to have been executed in 2001 may contain a watermark that, after research, proves that the paper was not made until 2012.
Senior Conservator Erin Hammeke had previously used a tool developed by Victoria Binder to make a color accurate printed reproduction for use in an exhibit so I decided to look into that. Victoria’s article in ’ discusses using the Action feature in Photoshop to automatically make variations on settings like midtone color, exposure, and saturation in an easily printable contact sheet. I wasn’t looking to create a fill for a photograph, but color matching a printed image to an original was exactly what I needed. By using Victoria’s Actions Set I could easily print contact sheets with up to 15 variations on a single page, and pick the one that looked closest to the original without wasting reams of paper.