Fridrich, J., Goljan, M., and Du, R. Steganalysis based on JPEG compatibility. In: , Special Session on Theoretical and Practical Issues in Digital Watermarking and Data Hiding, vol. 4518. International Society for Optical Engineering, Denver, Colorado, August 21-22, 2001, pp. 275-280. Also available: .
Although this subject is also beyond the scope of this paper, one interesting example of steganography disruption software can be used to close this discussion. 2Mosaic by Fabien Petitcolas employs a so-called "presentation attack" primarily against images on a Website. 2Mosaic attacks a digital watermarking system by chopping an image into smaller subimages. On the Website, the series of small images are positioned next to each other and appear the same as the original large image (Petitcolas 2003).
The digital watermarks described in this paper are designed to be, as far as possible, invariant against image transformations such as rotation, translation, scaling and cropping.
There are a number of uses for steganography besides the mere novelty. One of the most widely used applications is for so-called . A watermark, historically, is the replication of an image, logo, or text on paper stock so that the source of the document can be at least partially authenticated. A digital watermark can accomplish the same function; a graphic artist, for example, might post sample images on her Web site complete with an embedded signature so that she can later prove her ownership in case others attempt to portray her work as their own.
We concentrate especially on the desirable properties of the Fourier Transform and propose a novel technique based on an invisible template which allows us to reverse many of the effects of image processing on the digital watermark.
Copy reactive paper uses covert and overt security features to react against any solvent or aqua attempted tampering, digital alteration or analogue/digital duplication and uses advanced features to enable first line examination to check authenticity of the high security document.
Steganography provides some very useful and commercially important functions in the digital world, most notably digital watermarking. In this application, an author can embed a hidden message in a file so that ownership of intellectual property can later be asserted and/or to ensure the integrity of the content. An artist, for example, could post original artwork on a Website. If someone else steals the file and claims the work as his or her own, the artist can later prove ownership because only he/she can recover the watermark (Arnold et al. 2003; Barni et al. 2001; Kwok 2003). Although conceptually similar to steganography, digital watermarking usually has different technical goals. Generally only a small amount of repetitive information is inserted into the carrier, it is not necessary to hide the watermarking information, and it is useful for the watermark to be able to be removed while maintaining the integrity of the carrier.
Weconcentrate especially on the desirable properties of the FourierTransform and propose a novel technique based on an invisible templatewhich allows us to reverse many of the effects of image processing onthe digital watermark.
Two of the more recent books on the subject are by N.F. Johnson, Z. Duric, and S. Jajodia (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000) and , edited by S. Katzenbeisser and F.A.P. Petitcolas (Artech House Books, 2000). One of the most informative Web sites on the subject is Neil Johnson's Steganography & Digital Watermarking Page at .
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Analog-to-digital conversion is accomplished by sampling the analog signal (with a microphone or other audio detector) and converting those samples to voltage levels. The voltage or signal level is then converted to a numeric value using a scheme called pulse code modulation. The device that performs this conversion is called a coder-decoder or codec.
The digital watermarks described in this paper aredesigned to be, as far as possible, invariant against imagetransformations such as rotation, translation, scaling and cropping.