Nearly any business consultant worth his fee consults first with the front-line employees in order to determine the companys problems: the paper recommends that this insurance company do the same.
The paper has a discussion of Management By Objective and its usefulness for short-term projects such as opening new stores, along with an organizational chart and two communications diagrams.
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VMware ESX Server enables a physical computer to be available as a pool of secure virtual servers, on which operating systems can be run. This is an example of dynamic, logical partitioning. Moreover, ESX Server does not need a host operating system (like VMware workstation) - it runs directly on hardware (in that sense, it is the host operating system). ESX server was inspired by work on Disco and Cellular Disco, which virtualized shared memory multiprocessor servers to run multiple instances of IRIX. As mentioned earlier, the IA-32 architecture is not naturally virtualizable. Certain "sensitive" instructions must be handled by the VMM, and cannot be simply executed in non-privileged mode because they don't cause a General Protection exception. ESX Server solves this problem by dynamically rewriting portions of an operating system kernel's code to insert traps at appropriate places - in order to catch such sensitive instructions. ESX Server can run multiple virtual CPUs per physical CPU. Multiple physical network interface cards can be logically grouped into a single, high-capacity, virtual network device.
The Java Virtual Machine (JVM) is another well known virtual machine. The JVM is an abstract computer: there is a Java VM specification that describes the "machine" (in terms of things such as a register set, a stack, a heap that's garbage collected, a method area, an instruction set, etc.) A JVM implementation for a particular platform (such as x86/Linux, x86/Windows, SPARC/Solaris, and so on) represents, among other things, a software implementation of the above specification. Note that it is also possible to implement the JVM in microcode, or even directly in silicon. The picoJava, for example, is a Java processor core. You can compile a Java program on any platform X and run it on any platform Y, given X and Y support JVM implementations. Unless Y is a "Java processor", its instruction set would be different from the (platform-independent) bytecode produced by the Java compiler. A JVM could interpret the bytecode one (Java) instruction at a time, or use JIT (Just-In-Time), a JVM-integrated optimization (it usually is faster, but not always) that takes the bytecode and compiles it into native code for the machine it is running on.
We have seen that in the original, traditional sense, virtualization provides multiple execution environments (virtual machines), each of which is identical to the underlying computer. Each virtual machine looks like a "real" machine to its user, whereas in reality, it is an isolated (from others) environment running on the really real machine under the supervision of a Virtual Machine Monitor (VMM). Recent years have introduced several new connotations for the phrase "virtual machine" (as some of the examples will indicate). This section provides brief overviews of several frameworks (methodologies, projects, products, concepts) related directly or indirectly to virtualization.