There are only bits and pieces of information on the materials used over time in traditional papermaking in Korea. However, paper mulberry has clearly been the main material since the eighth century. There are two main kinds of paper mulberry in Korea: Broussonetia kazinoki Sieb and Broussonetia papyrifera (L) Vent. Both belong to the Moraceae family and are native to Korea, Japan and China. However, over time some have crossbred with other varieties and it is rather difficult to characterize some of them. Paper mulberry grows naturally throughout the country to a height of about three meters. Broussonetia kazinoki is called chamdac in Korean and Broussonetia papyrifera (L) Vent is called kuzinamu in Korean.
expressed in terms of the consumption of permanganate in a standard test; a rule of thumb is that (Kappa number x 0.15) = % lignin left in sample. Other, similar tests include K number (similar, but doesn’t standardize the sample size) and P number (used for bleached, low-lignin pulps).
American Paper and Pulp Association.
1965. The Dictionary of Paper, including pulp, paperboard, paper properties and related papermaking terms. 3rd ed. New York.
The Chosun Kingdom (1392 – 1910)
The Chosun kingdom that replaced the Koryo kingdom, was a neo-Confucian state. During its approximately 500 years, many literary and philosophy books were published. From the beginning of this kingdom, there was an effort to revive papermaking skills by establishing a papermaking department operated by the government. However, because of the increasing popularity of publishing a wide range of books, there was a lack of material. The Chosun government sent papermakers to China to learn their papermaking methods using different raw materials and also imported materials from Japan; in 1430 King Sejong sent an envoy to Daema Island to get fine Japanese mulberry for cultivation. A wide range of different raw materials, such as pine tree bark, rice straw, and bamboo, were used for papermaking. Although this was not the first time that other materials had been mixed with paper mulberry, such mixtures became more common from this period on.
Grain Processing Corporation’s CHARGEMASTER® L435, L340 and L360 cationic starch pastes are used as wet-end strength/retention aid additives for papermaking applications. Depending on the system, GPC offers a product that will contain the charge substitution needed to generate maximum performance in terms of retention (machine performance) and strength (sheet quality). They are also broke coagulants used to scavenge anionic interfering substances.
Since Korea was opened to the Western world, many traditions have declined, including traditional papermaking. There are still a few papermakers producing papers in the traditional way in Korea, but it has been difficult for them to earn a living because the traditional way of papermaking is so laborious and the market is limited. The aim of this research is to review the history, materials, and tools used in traditional papermaking. Some old Korean paper samples have been analyzed using a polarizing microscope and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to obtain close observations of each sample.
The Era of the Three Kingdoms (1st century BCE – 7th century CE)
Goguryeo (39 BCE – 668 CE) was a large Korean kingdom established during the 1st century BCE, and it governed the northern part of the Korean peninsula. Baecze and Sinla were rival kingdoms that controlled the southern part of the Korean peninsula, dividing it into east and west. It is believed that the kingdom of Goguryeo started to record its history from the beginning of its era and left Yugi, 100 volumes of written history. The kingdom of Baecze compiled its history at the end of the 4th century and Sinla did the same in the middle of the 6th century. There are no records of papermaking during this era, but it can be presumed that by that time traditional papermaking skills were well developed; otherwise it would have been impossible to supply the large amount of paper needed to satisfy the demands of writing so many history books. Although the kingdom of Sinla was the latest in terms of cultural development, eventually it conquered the other two kingdoms and unified them in 668CE. This period is called Tongil-Sinla and presents valuable historic remains. For example, the earliest known extant printed Buddhist text, Dharani Sutra, was found at the Pulguk Temple in Kyungju, which was the capital of Tongil-Sinla. It was inside a stupa sealed in 751 CE. Moreover it was found with a record that had the exact date when this project was started, and the papermaker’s name. During its conservation, it was confirmed that the paper had been made of paper mulberry, which Koreans term dac.
Air-dry pulps are assumed to contain 10% moisture.
A paper manufacturing process in which fibers are carried and formed to the structure of paper by air rather than water as in traditional papermaking.
Bleaching - A chemical treatment used to whiten, brighten and improve paper pulp prior to papermaking. See ECF and TCF bleaching.
The individual fibres were mixed with water in a large vat. Next, a screen was submerged in the vat and lifted up through the water,catching the fibers on its surface. When dried, this thin layer of intertwined fiber became what today we call paper. T'sai Lun's thin, yet flexible and strong paper with its fine, smooth surface was known as T'sai Ko-Shi , meaning: "Distinguished T'sai's Paper" and he became revered as the patron saint of papermaking.
There, during the 8th century, the Empress Shotuka undertook a massive project consisting of printing a million prayers - dharani - on individual sheets of paper, with each mounted in its own pagoda. With such a profound inception, it is not surprising that the fine art of papermaking has continued in Japan to this day, garnering deep appreciation and ever increasing sophistication.
The peaceful era of the early Chosun culture ended in 1592 when the Japanese invaded after Japan was newly-unified under Hideyoshi Toyotomi. During the six years of war, Hideyoshi and his generals pillaged the Chosun cultural properties, and many craftsmen were taken as slaves and transported to Japan. The papermaking industry was greatly damaged by this invasion since it was based on the labor of farmers in the agricultural off season. After this war the government pressured Buddhist monasteries to supply paper as monks were already producing papers for religious texts. At the same time, a heavy tribute of paper was demanded by China during the Yuan, Ming, and Ching dynasties. All these factors exhausted the papermaking industry, and the quality of paper produced in this period declined. It was near the end of this period when western paper equipment was brought to Korea from Japan by a Korean government official in 1884.