To advocate for the validity of ADHD (or any other disorder), a framework is needed to demonstrate that (a) clinicians and researchers utilize specific criteria for establishing a mental disorder as valid and (b) ADHD meets the criteria of the validation framework. Two frameworks for establishing a disorder’s validity have dominated the field of psychology, one proposed by Robins and Guze (1970) and another offered by Wakefield (1992, 1999). Some clinical researchers have explicitly applied these frameworks to argue for the validity of ADHD (Antshel, Phillips, Gordon, Barkley, & Faraone, 2006; Barkley, 2006; Faraone, 2005; Nigg, 2006), whereas others have implicitly applied variants of these frameworks (Lahey & Willcutt, 2002). In this section, we apply both Robins and Guze’s and Wakefield’s frameworks explicitly to ADHD in order to demonstrate the validity of ADHD as a mental disorder.
The fact that the ADHD symptom set “hangs together” well and that different raters typically arrive at the same diagnostic conclusion provides considerable evidence for the internal validity of ADHD. Numerous studies support the current two-factor internal structure and further bolster the internal validity of ADHD (e.g., Lahey & Willcutt, 2002). Multiple research teams have shown that the DSM-IV two-dimensional structure of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity offers the best account for the pattern of symptom covariation compared to the DSM-III three-dimensional structure (i.e., inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity) or the DSM-III-R single-dimension structure.
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The reason that the author decided to focus the research on children is because, as stated before, ADHD is a childhood disorder that should be diagnosed before reaching adulthood.
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