Possible explanations are that vigorous exercise can increase levels of endorphins, which are known to provide a sense of well-being and increased resistance to pain. Elite marathoners may experience a feeling of euphoria referred to as the
“runner’s high” and are often so insensitive to pain that they continue to run on broken bones that would normally bring them to an immediate halt. However, the old adage “no pain, no gain” no longer seems to be valid since many stress
reduction rewards can be achieved by walking for 20-30 minutes several times a week or other much milder physical activities that promote a sense of well being. The support provided by others in group exercise activities as well as
an improved sense of self–esteem associated with physical activity can also have powerful stress reduction effects.
The paper showed this to be true and suggested that coping techniques for stress can greatly improve a person's physical health. Chronic psychological stress, such as dealing with a terminal illness in the self of or a loved ones, has been shown to reduce immune effectiveness.
Harvard Mental Health Letter,
December 2005, Bartholomew JB, et al. Effects of Acute Exercise on Mood and
Well-Being in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder. Med Sci Sports Exerc.
2005;37:2032-2037. Fleshner M. Physical Activity Reduces the Negative Effects of
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al. Voluntary freewheel running selectively decreases the peripheral sympathetic
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# 4, 2005. [/toggle]
These arguments are absolutely convincing regarding the effects of stress and stress management on the human immune system. The paper showed that depression and anxiety have significant negative effects on the immune system.
The degree of health problems, and their associated stressors or depressive states needs to be compared to determine whether stress or depression is the prominent factor.Lastly, and most important, a person's physical habits need to be monitored to determine if the immune response is solely, partly or not at all affected by the individual habits and not the stressors or depression. The purpose of this review was to show that a person' psychosocial environment is a primary cause either directly or indirectly in how a person feels physically, or recovers from illness.
Some of these benefits may be due to the ability of exercise to prevent stress-induced suppression of the immune system by its effects on the sympathetic nervous system. In one study, rats were housed in a cage with a mobile running wheel and were allowedto run whenever they wanted. Littermates were housed under identical circumstances but with a running wheel that did not move. After four weeks, both groups were exposed to a painful stressor and an antigen was administered
to determine immune system responses. Periodic blood tests showed that the production of protective immune system components was much higher in the exercise group of rats. This group also had a corresponding reduction in stress
hormone levels that could explain these effects. In addition, exercise was associated with less severe and fewer “fight or flight” sympathetic nervous system responses to a painful stressor.
It is also important to suggest that all individuals, not just those with psychological disorders, can benefit greatly from stress management techniques, given that there is no upper limit on immune performance. Overall, the paper illustrated its points very nicely and with few flaws.
It suggested that, because depression and anxiety can have this effect, it is important not only to treat the disorders but also to teach methods of coping with the associated stress to prevent immune problems. Future studies could definitely address methods of coping with stress and psychological disorders to increase the effectiveness of the immune system.
Resting is another important remedy of stress. People must sleep adequately for the body to get enough rest. “An adult should sleep a minimum of eight hours everyday” (Gordon, 121). Children should have different number of hours depending on their sleeping pattern. Enough rest and sleep will enable the body to resist any kind of stress an individual experiences. Rest enables the mind to rejuvenate energy and prepare to function well the following day. Children develop in their sleep; therefore, they should be allowed to sleep as often as possible.
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These obligations refer in the first place to sexual intercourse. In this sense, they are culturally defined to a great extent. Thus, some cultures strictly require either partners, or at least the woman, to have had no prior sexual experience before getting married, whereas in others, like in modern American culture, this experience has almost become a prerequisite. During the marriage itself, most cultures and sometimes even legal contracts stipulate that both partners should have no sexual intercourse with parties other than their spouse, although “among some savage tribes the husband permits his guests to have intercourse with his wife, or loans her for hire” (Ryan, 2003). In most societies, however, such sexual intercourse with an individual other than one’s spouse is strongly discouraged and “has also often been criminalized, especially in the case of a person who is a representative of the government” (Wikipedia, 2006).
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