It is defined as a policy of racial segregation and “political and economic discrimination against non-European groups in the Republic of South Africa” (“Apartheid”)....
In a speech given by commander-in-chief, president Barack Obama he uses this quote as an example to describe the racial situation that plagues contemporary America.
The article being analyzed is a research article by Jennifer Doleac and Luke C.D. Stein on how race plays a role in the determination of market outcomes. The first step in the scientific method of undertaking a research is the formulation of a question. The researcher states what he or she wants to learn from the research. On the racism article by Jennifer Doleac and Luke C.D. Stein, the research question is; do buyers discriminate based on race?
We present cross-sectional, US population-based data from the Latina/o adult sample (1427 females and 1127 males) of the National Latino and Asian American Study. Respondents completed self-reported measures of everyday and racial/ethnic discrimination, racial/ethnic identity, smoking status, and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) lifetime alcohol use disorder.
African Americans are more likely to abstain from drinking than are Whites; yet, they are more likely than Whites to engage in problem drinking. The analysis uses data from the 1999–2000 National Survey of Black Workers (N = 1692), which is a nationally representative sample of currently employed and recently unemployed English-speaking African American adults. This article examines the link between discrimination, religion, and African American drinking behavior. The results from multinomial logit analyses show that those who experience more discrimination are significantly more likely to be social drinkers (vs. nondrinkers). At the same time, when controlling for other factors, those who experience more discrimination are significantly more likely to be problem drinkers. When religiosity is taken into consideration, it acts as a suppressor in the relationship between experience with discrimination and nondrinking, as those who experience more discrimination are significantly less likely to be nondrinkers (vs. social drinkers). The results also suggest that religiosity partially explains the relationship between discrimination and problem drinking. The implications of these findings are discussed.
The book Wounds That Will Not Heal therefore researches on the development of these laws and policies affecting the racial set up of the nation (Nieli, 2013). These regulations and judicial systems tend to benefit a few while many are afflicted by the policies, which create the questions on the fundamentals of justice that the United States of America is based on. Therefore, the researcher provides an in-depth analysis and insights on how the judicial system is yet to fully overcome the issue of racism in its core functionality of providing justice to all Americans regardless of racial and ethnic backgrounds (Nieli, 2013).
American Sociological Association. (2007). Race, Ethnicity and the Criminal Justice System. Washington DC.
Banks, C. (2013). Criminal Justice Ethics-Theory and Practice. San Francisco: Sage Publications.
Lynch, M. J., Patterson, E. B., & Childs, K. K. (2008). Racial divide: Racial and ethnic bias in the criminal justice system. Monsey, N.Y: Criminal Justice Press.
Reiman, J., & Leighton, P. (2013). The Rich Get Richer and the Poor Get Prison-10th Edition. London: Pearson.
Spohn, C., DeLone, M., & Walker, S. (2012). The Color of Justice. United Kingdom: Wadsworth.
Nieli (2013) gives an overview of the policies that favored racial discrimination and their emergence during the mid-19th century, especially the 1960s. The judicial system during those times was controversial, and many individuals got involved in the fight for civil rights and freedom (Nieli, 2013). According to the researcher, the color-blind justice still prevails, with many still opposed to the laws, with little changes being made regarding them (Nieli, 2013).
In another exposition of the issue of racism, Silva (2014) discusses much about the idea of racism without racists to describe a notion of the controversial ideas regarding the current state of racism in the United States. In other words, according to the researcher, the nation behaves in a way that suggests she has overcome racism, although there are cases of racial inequalities taking place (Silva, 2014). In what he describes as a ‘colorblind society’, the researcher focuses on the election and re-election of President Barrack Obama, the first Black president in the American history. The election of a Black president does not prove that the matters of racism have been settled in America (Silva, 2014). The current president only got the opportunity of leading the country with his ideologies being accepted by most Americans; however, the same cannot be said of other sectors of life. Race and ethnic relations are still strained, with the Blacks and Whites still not accepting each other as a family or as a social group (Silva, 2014).
In another study on racial discrimination, Drakeford (2015) discusses the involvement of racism in education. According to the researcher, the issue of racism is so controversial that finding its instances in learning creates a social crisis, especially on the relations among students from different backgrounds of race and ethnicity. The researcher notes how the social challenge has been assumed in American schools, with many stakeholders trying to cover up the problem instead of solving it (Drakeford, 2015).
Specifically, Feagin (2001) reveals how police on multiple occasions, stopped a Black dentist driving an expensive car on the road in one of the cases of racial discrimination. In addition, he points out that racial constraint have been witnessed in the labor sector, where people have to defend their promotion on the basis of the background of their color and ethnic lines (Feagin, 2001). Feagin(2001), also expounds on the diverse dimensions of racism, including political, ideological and economic frameworks.
Feagin (2001), notes that the struggles concerning racism begun before the era of the civil rights movement and has since continued to develop to this day in the United States of America. According to Feagin, racism has developed its roots as a social problem in the country, and completely wiping it out of the country will be impossible even in the near future (Feagin, 2001). He continues to point out that racism is still an issue in several major areas including the police department. It is expected that such sectors as the police department should not experience cases of racial discrimination, since the role of the police is defending the society without fear or favor (Feagin, 2001). However, this is not the case in America today.