The paper centers on the authors use of the color black for relating the color of death, of fear, and of life for the people of his race during the time in which he wrote.
The paper explicates the poem in great detail, suggesting that although its poetic expression is lovely, it doesnt really work as a sonnet because its rhyme scheme and structure dont fit together.
Even if there is no specific explanation for a specific paper, the papers generally share the following superior qualities: descriptive and analytical titles; analytical theses; superior analysis of the texts; correct inclusion of quotations and formatting.
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(Compare "To the Merchants of Edinburgh" [Poem 75], lines 10-11 and the Flyting [Poem 83], line 231.) Later the term "fishwife" came to stand for any coarse, abusive woman.
82 Solistand wer as beis thik.
Compare CT III[D]1413, Piers Plowman C.1.110-21, and Death and Life, lines 142-50; compare also Jeremias 6:1: "for evil is seen out of the north, and a great destruction."
113-14 The joke here is that Hell seems to be teeming with these Erschemen - just as Hell in the Prologue to The Summoner's Tale is teeming with friars.
115 In ME works, "Termagant" is a name sometimes used for a Muslim deity believed to be one of Satan's minions.
Kinsley and Mackenzie gloss the term as "miser." I have followed Bawcutt's "skinflint," having already glossed "wrechis" (line 58) as "miser."
61-66 Bawcutt observes that "Force-feeding with molten metal was one of the stock torments of hell .
While often meaning "gates," the term may actually refer to the city's major streets rather than to its gateways.
9 For stink of haddockis and of scattis.
Some bystanders are able to glean small amounts of legal knowledge or terminology, which they presumably use in a pretentious, pseudo-learned fashion.
37 For the image of a "fox in sheep's clothing," compare lines 58-61 of "A Wooing in Dunfermline" (Poem 69).
38 I.e., his kindness is expressed in words but not in deeds.
The term blak in line 2 could be used for a woman of dark complexion; but as the poem develops, it becomes clear that the poet is describing an African.
5-6 Contrast Chaucer's Prioress, whose mouth is "ful smal, and therto softe and reed" (CT I[A]153).
Wong, S. C. P., Gordon, A. & Gu, D. (2007). Assessment and treatment of violence-prone forensic clients: an integrated approach. (suppl. 49), s66- s74. doi: 10.1192/bjp.190.5.s66 Background A risk-reduction treatment programme complemented by a focused assessment, both guided by the risk-need-responsivity principles, is suggested as the preferred treatment for violence-prone individuals with personality disorder. Aims Violence Reduction Programme (VRP) and Violence Risk Scale (VRS) were used to illustrate the design and implementation of such an approach. Participants from a similarly designed Aggressive Behaviour Control Programme were used to illustrate the principles discussed and to test programme efficacy. Method The VRS was used to assess risk/need and treatment readiness, and DSM III/IV psychiatric diagnoses of federal offenders. Results Participants had a high probability of violent recidivism and many violence-linked criminogenic needs, similar to offenders with high PCL-R scores. Most had antisocial personality disorder and substance use disorders; in terms of treatment-readiness, most were in the contemplation stage of change. Outcome evaluation results support the objectives of the VRP. Conclusions Integrating risk-need- responsivity principles in assessment and treatment can provide useful guidelines for intervention with violence-prone forensic clients with personality disorder. . . . The VRP and VRS are complementary: each providing the other with information required to fulfill the tasks of assessment, treatment and risk reduction.
Widom, C. S. (1989b). The cycle of violence. (4901), 160-166. doi:10.1126/science.2704995 Despite widespread belief that violence begets violence, methodological problems substantially restrict knowledge of the long-term consequences of childhood victimization. Empirical evidence for this cycle of violence has been examined. Findings from a cohort study show that being abused or neglected as a child increases one's risk for delinquency, adult criminal behavior, and violent criminal behavior. However, the majority of abused and neglected children do not become delinquent, criminal, or violent. Caveats in interpreting these findings and their implications are discussed in this article. . . . Early childhood victimization has demonstrable long-term consequences for delinquency, adult criminality, and violent criminal behavior. The results reported here provide strong support for the cycle of violence hypothesis.