In the support of the nature-nurture debate, psychologists used the studies of twins. There are two types of twins, identical twins and fraternal twins. Identical twins are from the same fertilized egg of the mother and they share the same genes as each other ( E pg 62). In addition, fraternal twins are from different egg cells and they do not share the same genes. In other words, identical twins share 100 percent of their genetic contents and fraternal twins share 50 percent of the same content (Wortman, Loftus & Weaver, 1999). For example, in the study of a genetic based disorder, schizophrenia, identical twins are rated four times higher in getting the disorder than fraternal twins (Neil, 2001). From just the studies of these two types of twins, researchers could only estimate the degree of environmental influence on behavior. So in order for researchers to find out the extent of genetic influence on human behavior, identical twins of the same genetics but were raised in different environment are used.
Nature vs nurture expository essay WaterWorld Themed Waterpark Source Reprinted by permission of the author From Gottesman I I Schizophrenia Genesis The Origins of Madness New York W H Freeman
6) Imagine that you are going to conduct a new experiment to examine the nature vs. nurture debate. In this scenario, you would have unlimited funds, unlimited access to participants, and would not be bound by current ethical guidelines. Making sure that your proposed study is sufficiently different from any of those described in the articles:
a) What would you study? Be specific.
b) How would you conduct your study?
c) What would you expect the results of your study to be?
nurture issue debates whether the behavioral make-up of a person is determined by what they inherit through genetics, nature, or the pool of the particular environment they are submerged in, nurture....
The degree to which the genetic make up of individual influences a person’s ability, traits in the person like aggressive, and fearful has been established by researchers to be enormous (Plomin, R. 2004). Equally, the effect of an environment on a child’s development where he or she is brought up has also been empirically supported both by common sense as well as science. Even though it is clear that a person’s physical characteristics are purely hereditary, the genetic aspect become a little bit confusing when it comes to the behavior of the same individual or even intelligence and also personality. Thus, the argument of whether nature or nurture is one that up to now has not been worn by any other side. This is indeed supported by the fact that it is not yet clear on the extent to which DNA contributes to what an individual is and equally how much of life’s experience help to shape the same individual (Plomin, R. 2004).
The debate of nature versus nurture had been dated back to the time of Greek philosophers like Plato and Aristotle (Crooks & Stein, 1991). In this context, according to Feldman (1997), nature means the genetic influence on the individual’s behavior. In relation to that, nurture means the effect the environment has on that individual, for example influence of parents or friends. The purpose of the nature-nurture debate is to explain the effect of genetic influence and the environment on the development of human trait and behavior (Crooks & Stein, 1991).
According to Kant the human form and action is provided by nature while the content that comes from human is generated provides from an individual’s experience (Schmidt, 2008, p. 463). Human cognition is largely reflective of the innate or rather genes which take control of our human development and personalities. These intrinsic and innate characteristics form the basis of our personalities. He argued that environmental factors do not cause substantial variations and complexities in our cognitive capacities. According to Kant, nature is responsible for providing naturally arising potentials while nurture provides the content, which is adopted by the potentials. A good example is that the capacity to learning and language use in innate while the language that is spoken by an individual depends on the socialization such as culture within which a person has been nurtured. Therefore, this can be argued that many people while growing up, they learnt and adopted the cultures, religions, languages and doctrines. They internalized them and socially defined them hence serving as their human identity, as they gave them meaning as members of a specific society and or wider human society in which they felt themselves comfortable to be in. On the other hand, British philosopher John Locke, views on the debate about nature and nurture in describing the human thoughts and personality focused on the role of the surrounding environment (nurture) (Simpson, 2006, p. 693). In supporting his view that human thoughts and personality is based on the surrounding environment and life experiences, he compared the human mind as a blank piece of paper without anything written on it. He therefore suggested that human beings only draw knowledge and reason from the experiences they go through in their day-to-day interactions within the environment.
Every person in this world has their own distinctive personality and behavior. People may wonder why an individual may act the way they do. Thus psychologists had put this into a study of whether an individual’s behaviors are caused by hereditary or the environment. This study is known as the nature-nurture debate. This essay will discuss the nature-nurture debate in relation to how it influences the human traits and behavior focusing on twin and adoption studies. Furthermore the essay will also discuss how hereditary and the environment influences on the behavior of intelligence base on twin and adoption studies.
The nature vs. nurture controversy is an age-old dispute that has elicited mixed reactions from behavioral psychologists, theologians, philosophers and theorist consciousness in trying to explain and understand the source of human personality. The controversy is whether human development and behaviors originate from environment that we are raised (nurture) or biology (nature).
Intelligence provides a better understanding to the discussion of the nature-nurture debate. According to (Miele, 2002), various studies on intelligence of identical twins being rear apart had shown the result to be 0.78. Following that, the fact that correlations in IQ between parents and the adopted child is about 0.19, and the result between the adopted child and the natural children of the adoptive parents is about 0.32. Fisher (1918, as cited in Miele, 2002) calculated the correlation for any heritable trait on cases such as the identical twins. The reading would be 1.00 since the twins share the exact genes and for fraternal twins, the reading is 0.5. Surprisingly, the tests conducted on identical and fraternal twins who were rear apart reveal the following results. The higher one of the twins scored, the lower the other one gets. From this, (Miele, 2002) conclude that since the results is quite similar to the predictions, genetic factors do influence in human development.
In conclusion, this essay has discussed the general role of the nature-nurture debate and how it can affect the human traits and behavior. Clearly it can be seen that both genetic factors and the environment can influence the intelligence in human through the studies of twins and adoptees.