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free Animal Rights term papers on Animal Rights

Just as important as what the word means in terms of predictive value and how PPV and NPV are calculated, is what does not constitute predictive value. For example, a single example of correlation does not qualify a model as predictive or indicate a high PPV or NPV. A modality or practice must be evaluated based on its history of correlating with reality. Cherry-picking examples is not allowed. Moreover, one must be very precise when defining what is being evaluated for predictive value. If one wishes to evaluate animal models in general then all the wrong answers by all species must be included in the calculation as well as all the correct answers. If one is calculating PPV for a specific animal model, say using beagles in hepatotoxicity testing, then all correct and incorrect answers for beagles should be included but not outcomes from different species or even different breeds.

The assumption that animal models are predictive of human outcome is foundational for much of their use in biomedical research and for justifying animal-based research in general. Whether this assumption is true is a separate issue from that of methodology and study design although methodology may influence predictive value. The prevailing view within the animal model community among those calling for standardization and SRs, per above, is that animal models would perform better, meaning they would have a higher PPV and NPV for humans, if researchers adhered to strict criteria with respect to study design and methodology []. It is important to note that the potential validity of the animal model for predicting human response to drugs and disease is not questioned, at least in most of the literature that addresses SRs and standardization. We acknowledge that animals can successfully be used in categories 3-9 in table and that SRs could positively impact on such use and that some calling for SRs and standardization advocate for such on this basis. However, it appears that the main emphasis among those calling for SRs and standardization is to improve predictive value. Therefore we consider it appropriate to explore whether a proper understanding of evolutionary biology and complexity science allows for the use of one species to predict responses to drugs and diseases for another, even under ideal circumstances [, , -]. SRs require the practice under study to be scientifically tenable. If the practice is not viable, then SRs will be of little value. We will now present the empirical evidence and later seek to place it within the context of complexity science and evolutionary biology.

In a general sense, many view martial arts as a sport that involves hurting one another.

Research Paper, Essay on Animal Rights - Dream Essays

Religions are designed under a set of traditions, symbols, narratives, and sacred histories which attempts to give life its meaning.

The definition meaning a “religion influenced by pre-Christian beliefs and practices of western Europe that supports the existence of supernatural power/ magic and both male and females deities who inherent in nature, and that highlights a ritual ceremony of seasonal and life.” In 1950, Gerald Gardner publicly introduced Wicca....

In The Cove the producer and co-founder of the Oceanic Preservation Society was actually personally involved in the filming efforts and worked directly with dolphin trainer Richard O’Barry in drawing light on the events occurring in a private cove in the city of Taiji, Japan....

Animal Rights Research Papers, Essays, Term Papers on Animal Rights

Lastly, that fact that Regan thinks rights are harbored under the circumstance of being an experiencing subject of a life will also be discussed in terms of the incapacitated, etc....

In reality, separating religion out of economic and political motives can be involved in such a way finding religious motives innocent of much.


In the meantime, individuals can also help this problem by reducing or eliminating actions that contribute to the exploitation and abuse of animals.

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Essay/Term paper: Animal rights - Dream Essays


term paper on Animal Rights # 2 - Planet Papers

Getting involved in local animal rights organizations and writing letters in protest to your congressmen is another way to contribute to the solution instead of the problem.

Free Papers and Essays on Animal Rights

can be used in essentially two ways when discussing science. First, scientists develop hypotheses, which generate predictions that can then be tested. Several confirmations of the hypothesis, by predictions that are found to be true, strengthen the hypothesis while one failed prediction may neccesitate revising the hypothesis or even destroy it altogether. This is standard science based on the hypothetico-deductive method and we have no issues with using the term in this manner. Animal use involving categories 5, 7, and 9 in table would employ this use of predict.

Animal Rights Philosophy - Term Paper

The second manner is used is when discussing the predictive value of a modality or practice. Such is the case with categories 1 and 2 in table . An example outside of biomedical science would be when Italian geologists were asked whether a series of small quakes in the area meant that residents should evacuate their houses because a major earthquake was likely forthcoming. The geologists stated that a major earthquake was unlikely and this was consistent with current knowledge of earthquakes. Nevertheless, the Italian legal system convicted the scientists on charges that essentially said they were negligent in failing to warn the residents to evacuate []. This was a cause for concern in the scientific community as an analysis revealed that small quakes forecast a major quake only 2% of the time [, ]. Clearly, a practice or modality that correctly calculates the answer only 2% of the time does not qualify as . Exactly what percentage is necessary to qualify will vary with the field of study. Finding a method that will result in the correct answer 51% in the field of gambling, in blackjack for example, would be very productive and probably qualify as meeting the criteria for being a predictive practice. Using instruments to fly an aircraft on the other hand, requires that the instruments correctly communicate the exact location of the aircraft 100% of the time. While medical science does not require predictive values of 100%, it does require very high values. Tests that correlate with reality even 70% of the time are not very useful.

Animal Rights – Essay Sample on Essay & Term Papers

There is a less common name for Shinto that comes directly from the Japanese language, which is “Kami no michi” which also means “Way of the Gods” (Renard 18)....

term papers on Animal Rights & Zoology and research …

This paper is going to argue that animals deserve to have the same rights as humans and therefore, we don’t have the right to kill or harm them in any way....

term papers Animal Rights & Zoology -help! - 008-004

Leaders were adamant against American involvement in the Vietnam War, and could influence the government better than the actions of the organized antiwar movement.

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