who helped found ancient Egypt. The ancestors of the Egyptians or Kemites originally lived in Nubia. The Nubian origin of Egyptian civilization is supported by the discovery of artifacts by archaeologists from the University of Chicago's Oriental Institute, at Qustul (William 1987; Winters 1994).
A combination of Nubians and West Africansengaged in mutual trade and commerce along thecoasts of West Africa could have planned manytrips to and from the Americas and could haveconducted a crossing about 1500 B.C.
The banks of the Nile are teeming with all kinds of water fowls, but the reasons why among all these the Ibis was selected for extraordinary honors will perhaps never be fully known. There seems to be nothing very remarkable about this bird, which at the present day is seldom found in Egypt. Its native habitat is Nubia and Sudan, but in ancient times it must have been very common throughout Egypt, as mummies of the bird are found in all parts of the country. Bronze figurines are also very common and on the monuments and in the papyri it is one of the most familiar figures. It is the constant companion of thoth, "the god of the divine words," and the god himself is invariably represented with the head of an Ibis. (Fig. 6, plate 9.)
9:30-16:30place: Kanaris Lecture Theatre, the Manchester Museum, Oxford Roadcosts: £30.; booking at info: programme at p) University of Oxford* "Invisible Archaeologies: forgotten aspects of life in Ancient Egypt and Nubia"A one-day inter-disciplinary conference for Postgraduates andEarly Career researchers, working on Ancient Egypt and Nubia.
Among the sacred animals of Egypt, one of the most curious is the Cynocephalus or Dogheaded Ape, which, usually painted green, is frequently seen on the monuments and in the papyri. This ape, in Egyptian called or was in ancient times, as at present, brought from upper Nubia and the Sudan, which is its native habitat and where it is still regarded as an extremely clever beast, in intelligence superior even to man.
The only other civilizations that may have been in existance at that period in history were the Ta-Seti civilization of what became Nubia-Kush and the mythical Atlantis civilization which may have existed out in the Atlantic, off the coast of West Africa about ten to fifteen thousand years ago.
The iconographic evidence of the ancient Nubians clearly indicate that there were many round faced, thick lipped, flat nosed Nubians described in the Classical literature (Snowden, 1996: 106) that fit the archtypical Olmec ruler type ( Haslip-Viera, Ortiz de Montellano and Barbour, 1997).
The ancient Nubians like African- Americans today were not monolithic, they had different hues of skin, facial features and nose shapes (Keita, 1996: 104).
They claim that I support the Egypto- Nubian hypothesis of van Sertima, and belong to the so-called "extreme" Afrocentric position on Olmec civilization (Haslip- Viera, Ortiz de Montellano and Barbour, 1997: 421) Granted, van Sertima (1976) was wrong about the identity of the Olmecs , but he was correct in claiming that the Olmecs were of African origin.
Never in any of my publications on Olmec and African contact have I ever claimed that the Egypto-Nubians had contact with the Olmecs (Winters, 1979, 1981/1982,1983, 1984a, 1984c, 1997).
In fact, there were similarities between the cultures of Nubia and West Africa, even to the very similarities between the smaller scaled hard brick clay burial pyramids built for West African Kings at Kukia in
pre Christian Ghana and their counterparts in Nubia, Egypt and Meso-America.
Although West Africa is not commonly known for having a culture of pyramid-building, such a culture existed although pyramids were created for the burial of kings and were made of hardened brick.
In fact, they were not built of stone, but of hardened clay and compact earth.
Still, even though we don't see pyramids of stone rising above the ground in West Africa, similar to those of Egypt, Nubia or Mexico, or massive abilisks, collosal monuments and structures of Nubian and Khemitic or Meso-American civilization.
The original inhabitants of the Sahara where the Egyptian or Kemitic civilization originated were not Berbers or Indo-Europeans (Winters 1985b). This was the ancient homeland of the Dravidians, Egyptians, Sumerians, Niger-Kordofanian-Mande and Elamite speakers is called the Fertile African Crescent (Anselin 1989, p.16, 1992; Winters 1981,1985b,1989, 1991,1994). The inhabitants of this area lived in the highland regions of the Fezzan in modern Libya and Hoggar until after 4000 B.C. We call these people the Proto-Saharans (Winters 1985b, 1991). The generic term for this group is Kushite.
Yet, when the region of ancient Ghana and Mauritania is closely examined, evidence of large prehistoric towns such as Kukia and others as well as various monuments to a great civilization existed and continue to exist at a smaller level than Egypt and Nubia, but significant enough to show a direct connection with Mexico's Olmec civilization.
The similarities between Olmec and West African civilization includes racial, religious and pyramid bilding similarities, as well as the similarities in their alphabets and scripts as well as both cultures speaking the identical Mende language, which was once widespread in the Sahara and was spread as far East as Dravidian India in prehistoric times as well as the South Pacific.
During the early years of West African trade with the Americas, commercial seafarers made frequent voyages across the Atlantic.