Theories of mass communication have alwaysfocused on the "causeand effects" notion, i.e. the effects of the media and theprocess leading to those effects, on the audience's mind. Harold Lasswell and Berelsonhave succinctly expressedthis idea. Lasswell's essential question istimeless (1949):"" Berelson said: "."(1949).
Baran and Davis (2000) classify masscommunication theoriesinto three broad categories:
1. microscopic theories that focus onthe everyday lifeof people who process information - for example, uses and gratifications,active audience theory, and reception studies;
2. middle range theories that supportthe limited effectsperspective of the media - for example, information flow theory,diffusion theory, and
3. macroscopic theories that areconcerned with media'simpact on culture and society - for example, cultural studiestheory.
Documentation is a vital component of safe, ethical, and effective patient/resident care practice, regardless of whether the documentation is paper-based or electronic. Documentation provides a mechanism to describe, record, and communicate data, information, knowledge, and wisdom about a patient/resident; the care provided; the effect of care and the continuity of care. Documentation also provides a legal record of care provided. Specific principles, standards, policies, procedures, and processes are part of any documentation system and help present the content in meaningful ways (ANA, 2007). Students need to be familiar with and follow the health care organizations policies, standards and protocols.
Discuss the relevance ( or lack thereof) of mass communication as it is portrayed in the film “Persepolis”
Use spesific elements of from the film to back up your points.
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This is the tendency to interpret communication messages in termsof one"s existing attitudes. People of distinct psychologicalcharacter same media content in different ways. This depends onfactors such as age, values, family, opinions etc. Selective perceptionis influenced by social relationships.
It is a collective phrase that represents not only the press,cinema, radio, television and internet, but also to some extent,books magazines, pamphlets , direct mail literature, posters,folk media, and natural communication methods such as rumours,education and preaching. It is so termed because its reach extendsto vast heterogeneous populations. Generally the mass media employtechnological means to communicate to the masses. They are foundedon the idea of mass production and distribution. Wiebedefined mass media as those readily available to the general public.
She was created in 1941 by a psychologist named William Moulton Marston or Charles Moulton as his pen name (who studied the psychological effects of mass media and the developer of the lie-detector test) ....
These theories suggest that mediatedexperiences induce long termeffects that are very difficult to measure. The effects are likestalagmite drippings building up over time. Meaning Theory and the Cultivation Theory aretwo ofthe most significant Stalagmite theories.
Feedback, a term form cybernetics, the study of messages. It refersto an inquiry, response or experiment. Feedback can be positive(when the required result is achieved) or negative; instantaneous(whenthe response is immediate) or delayed. Feedback is used to gaugethe effectivenss of a particular message put forth or situationthat has taken place.
Play is an activity pursued for pleasure. Thedaily withdrawalof people into the mass media in their after hours is a matterof subjectivity. The effect of mass communication is notescapismnor seducing the masses. Rather it is seen as anti-anxiety producing,and are regarded as communication-pleasure.
The paper also addresses the controversy over whether or not primates can learn to use and understand human type communication such as sign language.
From all the discussed above a fair question comes up: Is culture jamming itself just another form of propaganda? The previous question is immediately followed by the next: If it is not, is it effective? Some culture jammers intent to make people more conscious of the influence of marketing and advertising – and then foster activism out of that growing awareness. The culture jammers that belong to this group either perform art for hearts sake, thus not aiming at mass acceptance and simply expressing the disparate mood of the consumerist generation; the second portion are the mass-oriented idea promoters, which either do it for the purpose of good will or for a certain purpose. To answer, the first question, culture jamming surely can be (although not obligatory) a certain kind of propaganda. Culture Jamming also bears a strong ideological load, a certain commitment of the temper of resistance-culture. Moreover, culture jamming intents to persuade. From this point of view, one can propose that culture jamming becomes a propaganda when it has an intensified character and does not reflect the reality which it comments on (i.e., its critique is based on invalid facts). However, we do not see the overflow of culture jamming in the Media. Therefore, it is not in the mainstream, but the countermovement providing critique on that mainstream. Culture jamming, predominately, is also the work of single artists or small groups of individuals, and is not empowered or sponsored by the “people and organizations at power”. That is why I would disagree that culture jamming is propaganda in the majority of cases. What concerns the effectiveness of the culture jamming, I would be less optimistic here. The culture jamming did not grow into a consequent and organized mass movement until now, which is able to bring some positive change. The problems it indicates are not solved, and some of them are even getting worse. Perhaps, the presence of the culture jammers that is, however, not strong enough to bring change is even beneficial for the corporations and people at power. The presence of critique indicates that there is freedom and democracy in this country and calms down the people, and the inability of critics to make change secures the position of the Media controllers. So, culture jamming is not very effective until now. Anyway, culture jamming provides alternative ideas, and is not it ideas that gradually change the world?