Academies specifically for art instruction Among the several academies in France, the one concerned with the visual arts is the French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture, founded in 1648 by Colbert and King Louis XIV, and later known as the Académie des Beaux-Arts.
Chinese artist Li Hongbo became a sensation when his made waves in Miami during Basel Week in 2013–causing nearly every piece in his follow-up show at to sell out before it even opened. Today Li Hongbo is presenting a new body of work in his solo exhibition, , sure to cultivate a fresh frenzy for this extraordinarily skilled sculptor. Art Report sat down with Li Hongbo before his opening reception to hear more about this new series focusing on the importance and flaws of education.
To have confidence in the application of weathering layer data to an authentication question, the weathering that takes place on the type of rock in question in the (burial) environment in which it is likely to have undergone most of its weathering should be characterized. Geological samples if appropriate or artifacts (or architectural blocks) if appropriate should be examined. A range of deterioration, on a single artifact and on different artifacts, can probably be expected. Rarely can such a database be built, however. Another option is to look for weathering features and by-products that are known to result from the deterioration of certain minerals or types of rocks under general conditions similar to those of a sculpture made from the same material.
On rocks that contain more than one mineral the microscopic structure and composition of a weathering layer will not be identical on exposed surfaces of the different minerals. Some minerals, such as quartz, are very resistant to weathering, while others are much less resistant. The processes by which different minerals break down and the products of those breakdown processes vary from one mineral type to another. Even on monomineralic rocks the nature of the weathering layer will not necessarily be uniform over the entire surface of a sculpture.
It is difficult to quantify the appearance of tool marks on a complex sculpture in such a manner that would allow the data to be readily utilized by other researchers. The use of tool marks in authentication studies may fall more into the realm of technical connoisseurship, where interpretation of significance depends on the experienced eye of a researcher who has carefully examined many tool marks on many artifacts. One example is in a paper published 13 years ago by a sculptor who has studied tool marks on Roman marble sculptures (Rockwell, 1990). He argued that although a skilled modern forger could use the same tools as an ancient Roman sculptor, utilizing them in exactly the same manner would be very difficult, and that the differing manners of use could be distinguished by careful examination of tool marks, when the appropriate marks are still present on a sculpture. A very interesting concluding remark of his was, “In reading literature on fakes and faking I find that no one questions that the faker can, if he wants to, reproduce the technique of the period being faked. It is taken as a given that a good technician can reproduce the technique of any period. I think that this is an assumption about techniques, based on the ignorance of nontechnicians, that deserves serious questioning.”
One of the most outstanding research projects yet to be published on sculptural rock sources involves the limestone utilized in French medieval sculptures. The beginning of this massive undertaking goes back to a modest self-contained 1985 project published on a small group of sculptures (French et al., 1985). Nine Romanesque sculptures in four American museum collections that shared certain stylistic features were considered by some scholars to have originated from one monument in southern France. The goal of the project was to determine whether this was the case and the location of the rock source(s). Petrographic examination and neutron activation analysis indicated that the nine were probably made of rock from the same quarry. As a part of this phase of the project the representative sample size for the chosen analytical technique and elements being analyzed was determined, and the fact that a single sample could be considered representative of an entire block of rock (of the size used in the sculptures) confirmed. Possible quarry sites in the general region of origin were selected for sampling and analysis on the basis of the petrographic features of the sculpture samples. Initial neutron activation analysis of a few samples from several different geological formations narrowed down the possibility to one area. From this area over 100 samples of the same geological formation were analyzed, three old quarries in particular being extensively sampled. The neutron activation analyses coupled with petrographic data narrowed down the likely source to two quarries that were about 2.5 kilometers apart. Multivariate statistical analysis was carried out on the elemental data.
(quarry), a number that actually ranged from 8 to 40 for the major Paris basin quarries. The extensive database now makes it possible to determine quarry sources for museum artifacts made from limestone that came from this general region of northern France. The database includes samples from some monuments, and this data has enabled the identification of the monument that sculptures in museum collections originally embellished. Examples are the head of an angel, the head of a Virtue, and a choir screen from three separate collections. The trace element patterns of these three objects closely matched the trace element patterns of a group of samples from 25 sculptures on Notre Dame in Paris. The stone on the cathedral and in the three sculptures may have come from one of the ancient quarry sites that the research group has extensively studied, Charenton. This is one of a number of quarries in the Paris region from which one particular type of fine-grained limestone (Upper Lutetian limestone) was taken. Trace element analyses permit rock from many of the different quarries to be distinguished, although all are indistinguishable by petrography. About 1 gram of rock is required for this analysis.
Your paper should:a) Using specific examples, compare the way gods and people were depicted in the sculptures of ancient India and Greece, noting similarities and differences.b) Identify the cultural values and ideals that these art works reflect for each society.c) From this comparison, suggest a modern situation of artistic expression and the ways it reflects or counters prevailing cultural values.•Comparing Ancient Skeptics.
An important breakthrough came in 1972 with a publication by marine geochemists who applied a tool of their trade, stable isotope analysis, to a few samples from several of the major ancient Mediterranean marble quarries (Craig and Craig, 1972). The pilot project showed that simple plots of the ratios of the stable oxygen isotopes (18O and 16O) versus the stable carbon isotopes (13C and 12C), calculated with reference to a standard international reference material, the carbonate fossil Pee Dee belemnite, separated the marble from different quarries. Stable isotope analysis, which is comparatively inexpensive to carry out and requires a sample of only a few milligrams, is now perhaps the most frequently applied technique in sourcing studies of marble sculptures from this part of the world, but time has clouded the picture considerably. A recent publication showed how the isotope fields for the quarries have expanded since the 1972 publication (Gorgoni et al., 2002). It is possible to discriminate between certain quarries with stable isotope data, but many cannot be distinguished from this data alone. Quarry
Your paper should:a) Compare the teachings of Confucius and Aristotle on what constitutes virtue or good ethical character and conduct, noting similarities and differences in specific ideas or emphasis.b) Consider what your findings suggest about differences between ancient Chinese and ancient Greek culture.c) From this comparison, suggest ideas of virtue that can apply to ethics in a modern setting, such as a diverse workplace.•Comparing Sculptures of Ancient India and Greece.
China first settlements were discovered in the Huang He basin. This dates from 5000 BC. In 1500–1000 BC, during the Shang dynasty, the China’s writing system emerged. This enabled the rising states of that age to attain a higher phase of development, competing in complexity with the world. After attaining success of civilization, the Lao-tse, Confucius, Mo Ti, and Mencius positioned the foundation of Chinese theoretical thought. This period was called the Chou dynasty back in 1122–249 B.C. In 246–210 BC, Emperor Ch’in Shih brought together the states that were always at war with each other. The Great Wall of China prevented the invasion from the west. Despite China protection from the west, in 206 B.C.–A.D. 220 during the Han dynasty after attaining civilization success, it performed widespread marketable trading with the West. In the golden age of Chinese history 618–907 during the T’ang dynasty, painting, sculpture, and poetry grew. Woodblock printing facilitated the manufacture of books. In 1368–1644, the Mings conquered the Yuan, dynasty. In 1271–1368, the Mings in turn were conquered by northern intruders, the Manchus