"Microservices" - yet another new term on the crowded streets of software architecture. Although our natural inclination is to pass such things by with a contemptuous glance, this bit of terminology describes a style of software systems that we are finding more and more appealing. We've seen many projects use this style in the last few years, and results so far have been positive, so much so that for many of our colleagues this is becoming the default style for building enterprise applications. Sadly, however, there's not much information that outlines what the microservice style is and how to do it.
You may be required to use slightly different formats for other papers, such as papers submitted for publication to refereed journals, each of which typically have their own styles.
Problem stems from ambiguities in stating requirements. For example, say therequirement states that we want to create a means that would transport agroup of people from Boston to Washington D.C. Possible interpretations of thisrequirement includes building a bus, train, or airplane, among otherpossibilities. Although each of these transportation devices satisfy therequirement, they are certainly very different. Ambiguous requirements can becaused by missing requirements, ambiguous words, or introduced elements. Theabove requirement does not state how fast the people should be transported fromBoston to Washington D.C. Taking an airplane would certainly be faster thanriding a bus or train. These are also missing requirements. "a group ofpeople" in the above requirement is an example of ambiguous words. Whatexactly does "group" imply? A group can consist of 5 people, 100people, 1000 people, etc. The requirement states to "create a means"and not "design a transportation device". This is an example ofintroduced elements where an incorrect meaning slipped into the discussion. Itis important to eliminate or at least reduce ambiguities as early as possiblebecause the cost of them increases as we progress in the development lifecycle.
When writing introduction, once you get beyond the opening sentence that reveals the term paper's subject, you should use only one long sentence to each of the points you took up in the body of the term paper.
The introduction could be more than one paragraph long, or it could involve three or four paragraphs. Perhaps you feel uncomfortable if your term paper introduction does not fill up the first page of the work and move on into the second for half a page or so. The introduction should not run beyond that second-page limit, however.
After you’ve done some extra polishing, I suggest a simple test for the introductory section. As an experiment, chop off the first few paragraphs. Let the paper begin on, say, paragraph 2 or even page 2. If you don’t lose much, or actually gain in clarity and pace, then you’ve got a problem.
There are many requirements and specification standards. They are mostlymilitary standards as opposed to "commercial" standards. In addition,most of the standards are in the systems engineering area, and in particulardeals with the software aspects. A good reference to many of these standards isStandards, Guidelines, and Examples on System and Software RequirementsEngineering from the IEEE Computer Society Press. [Dorfman90] This book is acompilation of international requirements standards and U. S. militarystandards. There is also a section on requirements analysis methodologies andexamples. Listed below are several relevant standards, but the list is in nomeans exhaustive.
A specific in vitro diagnostic instrument contained approximately 175,000lines of source code and approximately 1,600 software requirements that neededto be traced. While the division also has an automated traceability system(ATS) that allowed them to automate many of the tasks, it was the process andnot the tool that led to their success. The main purpose of the traceabilityprogram is to identify links and determine that the links are complete andaccurate. The traceability analysis consists of 4 aspects: forward requirementsanalysis, reverse requirements trace, forward test analysis, and reverse testtrace. These steps are used to trace each software requirement through itsdesign elements and test traces. The ATS can be used to design documentationmatrices and test matrices that is used to perform the different analysesrequired. The ATS is also able to give feedback about the design componentsthat are not yet implemented during the life cycle. In the test phase, the ATSgives input to what requirements are covered by the test cases. [Watkins94]
When citing the name of a journal, magazine or newspaper, write the name in italics, with all words capitalized except for articles, prepositions and conjunctions.
Whichever opening you choose, it should engage your readers and coax them to continue. Having done that, you should give them a general overview of the project—the main issues you will cover, the material you will use, and your thesis statement (that is, your basic approach to the topic). Finally, at the end of the introductory section, give your readers a brief road map, showing how the paper will unfold.
First, the writer is usually straining too hard to say something terribly BIG and IMPORTANT about the thesis topic. The goal is worthy, but the aim is unrealistically high. The result is often a muddle of vague platitudes rather than a crisp, compelling introduction to the thesis. Want a familiar example? Listen to most graduation speakers. Their goal couldn’t be loftier: to say what education means and to tell an entire football stadium how to live the rest of their lives. The results are usually an avalanche of clichés and sodden prose.
Quotes, anecdotes, questions, examples, and broad statements—all of them have been used successfully to begin academic books and articles. It’s instructive to see them in action, in the hands of skilled academic writers.