Citation: Eriksson C, Hilding A, Pyko A, Bluhm G, Pershagen G, Östenson CG. 2014. Long-term aircraft noise exposure and body mass index, waist circumference, and type 2 diabetes: a prospective study. Environ Health Perspect 122:687–694;
In addition to evoking a stress response, noise is commonly associated with a disturbed sleep and chronic sleep loss (, ). Sleep disturbances affect the general well-being and may have several detrimental health effects, including disruptions of metabolic and endocrine functions (). Sleep debt has been shown to affect the carbohydrate metabolism—for example, reducing glucose tolerance as well increasing the activity of the sympathetic nervous system (; ). Shortened sleep may also affect serum levels of leptin and ghrelin, leading to an increased appetite and reduced energy expenditure, thus increasing the risk of overweight and obesity (; ). Furthermore, a recent systematic review and meta-analysis on sleep and diabetes showed that both reduced quantity and impaired quality of sleep predicts the risk of developing type 2 diabetes (). However, the role of sleep disturbances as an intermediate factor between aircraft noise exposure and metabolic outcomes remains unexplored.
The paper is thought to be the first toxicologic study to illustrate the role of stress in amplifying an animal’s respiratory response to particulate matter air pollution, and it offers a first step toward identifying pathways through which chronic stress may influence the animal’s susceptibility to pollution, Clougherty says.Many researchers focused on projects that examine the potential link between stress, pollution, and adverse health outcomes in humans have studied impoverished families living in inner cities.