The Vancouver style was first defined by a meeting of medical journal editors in Vancouver, Canada, in 1978. These guidelines follow the principles given in the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals: Writing and editing for biomedical publication published by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) in 2004 and the American Medical Association Manual of Style, 9th edition, 1998. These publications constitute authoritative international guides to Vancouver publication standards and style.
Vancouver Style uses a notational method of referencing when referring to a source of information within the text of a document. In its simplest form, a citation is given consisting of a number in superscript format or enclosed by parentheses.
Only a partial title and the page number are necessary, located in the upper or lower right, providing it is consistent.
Since the Vancouver style is generally only used for submitting medical articles to medical journals (so, unless you are a doctor, or about to be, you may never use this), the title page follows a strict guideline. First is the title of the paper, centered. The title should be short, however a longer descriptive title may follow it. (This is especially important in medical journals, because the more keywords used, the more likely the paper will be found.) Then follows the name of the author, and his or her credentials. Next is the department, and then the university or institution. After this, put the author's contact information. Lastly, a word count is necessary, and, if applicable, the name of a professor or institution who requesting the paper or sponsoring the study.
Following is an example of a heading in the Vancouver format:
Propensity of Huntington's Disease in Families, and an Examination of its Occurrence in Western Europeans
A well-written article should be shaped like an hourglass. That is, the Introduction begins very broadly by introducing the topic and defining terms, and then begins to narrow to more specifically focus on the variables in your study. At the end of the introduction, the paper is at its most specific (or "narrow") in that the Method and Results both provide extremely focused information about your study. The Discussion begins by reviewing your specific findings, but then starts to slowly broaden out again as the implications are discussed. By the end of the Discussion, the paper has become as broad in focus as it was at the beginning of the Introduction. Thus, an hourglass shape.
Check James D. Lester, Writing Research Papers, 5th ed., pp. 231-237 (available in the Writing Center) or the documentation manual for your field for arrangement and numbering of the list and for style and order of elements within each entry.
Harvard formatting requires a very specific title page. About halfway down the page is the title of the paper, in all capital letters. Following this (about three lines down) is the name of the author. This is not in capital letters. Move four lines down and then put the name of the class, and, on the line after that, the name of the professor. Next line is the name of the school, then the city and state where it is located, and, finally the date. Here is an example of a cover page in Harvard format:
These are some of the better papers that have been handed in in past semesters. Note, however, that these papers are far from perfect. I'm really hoping that you will provide me with some better examples this semester! Also note that the style and formatting of these papers don't conform to the standards we are using this semester.
In addition to all of the above formatting issues for term paper or that should be avoided, one thing to remember about in APA style is to avoid any potential for bias in your language, word choice or use of pronouns.
Incorrect use of bold type, underlining and italicizing is a common mistake. It’s natural to want to place emphasis on things you feel are important, but using bold type for this is unacceptable. It’s also incorrect to use bold or underlining on titles and subtitles. Italics are the correct enhancement for titles of works and reference list formatting.
In general, if you wish to cite an electronic file, you should include either the term "[Online]" or the term "[CDROM]" (enclosed in square brackets) before the closing period terminating the title of the work cited.
Using an incorrect format for citations within text is a common error especially by students who may have to write papers for different professors that require using Chicago or MLA styles. In text citations are listed as (author’s last name, year).
Avoid any experimentation with font styles. Students are often tempted to stretch the length of their APA format research paper or in rare cases, shrink it by using a different font style. The recommended and approved font style is 12 pt Times New Roman.
Formatting your paper correctly under APA style is an important technical piece of your research term paper or essay. If you are not very familiar with the APA rules, you may choose to get some help with the technical layout of your paper through using an APA template to format your paper properly. A template is also helpful because it takes away the worry about whether your paper is formatted correctly and enables you to focus more of your time on the content. APA templates are available through a wide variety of sources including your PC word processor, proprietary template software, and even random individuals who created the template themselves by following the guidelines, but these can be outdated and inaccurate. The best place to find an accurate and quality APA template, guaranteed to reflect the most recent edition of the APA style manual, is from .
APA guidelines include certain formatting preferences for tables and figures that appear in your essay paper format as well. Vertical lines in your tables are not used so don’t draw them in or try to generate them. The table number is typed above the table title which is placed flush left against the margin and in italics without the use of any period marks. Use your tab function to set table tabs and when including columns of decimal numerals, the decimal points should be aligned.
It should have thematic unity and an integrated structure.
If you stick to your problem and your outline, you should have no trouble writing a unified paper; unity just means sticking to the central idea of your paper and your plan for discussing it.