The first major reform came in 1790, whenPennsylvania substituted forced labor as the punishment for avariety of crimes, and rebuilt its old Walnut Street jail toaccommodate the new inmates. New York quickly followed. These two prisons experienced some early successes(Newgate even earned a profit net of expenses), and other statesmoved to follow their example. Problems soon arose. Despite increasing populationgrowth, neither state allocated any money to increasing prisoncapacity. The number of inmates in Pennsylvania’s prisontripled from 72 in 1790 to 220 by 1815. The prisons began to face an increasing number ofriots. Wardens began pardoning inmates as a method of keepingpopulation under control. In New York the practice became so common thatprisoners rioted if refused a pardon after serving half theirterm. Meanwhile, legislatures continued to press wardensto keep their prison costs under control. In a theme that would continue to repeat itself,prisons became overcrowded and underfunded.
How to Choose Term Paper Topic?Often the teacher or professor hands out an assignment sheet that covers the logistics of the term paper, but leaves the choice of topic up to the student. Typically, assignments in which students are given the opportunity to choose the term paper topic require the topic to be relevant to some aspect of the course; so, keep this in mind as you begin a course in which you know there will be a term paper near the end. You can be searching for topic ideas that may interest you. Do not be anxious on account of a perceived lack of authority or knowledge about the topic …
This paper has attempted to describe prison foodlaw and demonstrate its extraordinary differences and weaknesses,as compared to the rest of the food law regime. It lacks thepolitical support of food law, and as a result does not have thesame enforcement mechanisms. Interestingly, it has Constitutionalimplications that food law usually does not. Finally, the issues ofpunishment that are the very reason for a prison’s existencecomplicate and alter the analysis that must be conducted onspecific policy questions.
Finally, if this were not enough, the PrisonLitigation Reform Act has further limited inmate ability tolitigate on these issues. Its effects harm food litigation inseveral respects. First, as mentioned above, court orders andconsent decrees in prison suits must now be “narrowlytailored” to address the Constitutional harm. Yet most prisonfood suits are necessarily of the complex type, requiring detailedrulings to repair systemic problems. Presumably, many suchdecisions may no longer be upheld, and judges will have to tailortheir rulings in such a way as to make them lesseffective. Second, the requirement of “actualinjury” seems completely inappropriate when consideringissues of food law. After all, much of the point of sanitation andgood nutrition is to such harms. Forbidding inmatesfrom bringing suit in these cases essentially requires anyoversight to wait until the problem is a large one. Third, itslimits on filing make it that much harderfor inmates to bring suits on all issues, including those of foodlaw. On its face it may seem that this limitation inmates with valid claims, since it prevents more frivolouslawsuits from being brought. Nevertheless, the only reallycomprehensive empirical research done on the subject has found thatthe PLRA has resulted in a drop, not in frivolous lawsuits, butrather all inmate lawsuits.
Some, including many state attorney generals, haveresponded to this flood by claiming that such suits arefrivolous, but that is simply not the case. Indeed, in thepush to pass the Prison Litigation Reform Act, the NationalAssociation of Attorneys General and several state attorneygenerals distributed several “top ten” lists offrivolous inmate litigation. Ironically, at least one of the cases mentionedwas anything but frivolous, involving, e.g., claims of“overcrowding, forced confinement of prisoners withcontagious diseases, lack of proper ventilation, lack of sufficientfood, and food contaminated by rodents.”
In 1820, the first book introducing moderntechniques to identify food adulteration was published. Written byFrederick Accum, was “an immediate and worldwidesuccess.” The book detailed both the various methods sellersused to increase their profits through diluting or adding fillersto the foods they sold, and possible methods of discovering suchadulteration. Interestingly, though it might seem to be written ona somewhat dry topic, it was covered by newspapers and was known to“the public everywhere.” His book, and the copycats that followed, werelargely responsible for the enactment of the first examples ofmodern food regulation.
- Key Piece of Legislation research papers delve into a sample of an order placed for a project on a bill that has been proposed and follow it through the legislation process.
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Standardized tests are administered under standard conditions, scored in a standard way, and result in quantifiable results; they can include multiple choice or performance-based questions (like essays); and, while usually administered to groups, they may also be individually administered. Standardized tests are used in schools for a variety of reasons (to determine the achievement or […]
A term paper is an academic paper that is either argumentative or analytical. The analytical version usually discusses studies and research done in a specific field, such as the impact of family violence on homelessness. An argumentative version would come out in support for one side, such as arguing that decreasing family violence means limiting the amount of homeless people. Almost every high school, college, and university a student is expected to write a term paper at some point in his/her academic career. The goal of the term paper …
In California, long-term solitary confinement units are referred to as Security Housing Units (SHUs); in New York, the same acronym stands for Special Housing Units. In Oregon, the long-term isolation units are called Intensive Management Units (IMUs), while in Pennsylvania they are called Restricted Housing Units (RHUs). In the federal system, one type of extreme solitary confinement takes place in Communication Management Units (CMUs). Despite the variety of names, the general practice of incarceration in these units and facilities is solitary confinement.
Over the course of the past three decades, theprecise standard judges would apply to prison conditions, and theamount of deference they would grant to prison administrators, hasfluctuated. In 1996, however, a new law was passed byCongress that substantially cut back court oversight (and in theprocess, established the requisite standards). Termed the PrisonLitigation Reform Act (PLRA), the law was passed in response toCongress’ perceptions both that inmates were filing frivolouslawsuits regarding their incarceration in huge numbers, and thatactivist judges were overstepping their authority in orderingrelief.