A criminal charge is a claim that the government makes to indicate that a person has committed an offense. The state claims this after conducting thorough investigation on the person and proving using evidence that the person actually committed the crime. This indicates that the government does not make claims on its citizens without investigating and finding evidence. A person who is charged with a crime faces difficulties when making goals in future. The challenges that the person faces are mainly lack of the freedom of movement and discrimination at the work place. An understanding of how these challenges limit the goals of a person is essential because it will help in advising wrongdoers to refrain from committing criminal offenses.
The evolution of technology directly affects the way the criminal justice system operates at fundamental levels. A wide range of technologies are employed in support of the justice system, including telephony, database management software, computers, automobiles, and weapons. The adoption and implementation of technology also directly shapes the policies and practices of the justice system. For example, the development of modern communications and transportation technologies in the early 1900s increased the response capability of police and changed citizen calls for service. Computers and cellular technologies have increased the capacity of data processing, information sharing, and communications within and across agencies. The increasing societal dependence on the Internet and computer-mediated communications have led law enforcement to develop tools to investigate offenses online. Thus, technology plays a pivotal role in the justice system, though a majority of researchers focus on the implementation and effect of technologies in law enforcement agencies.
DNA profiling involves extracting DNA from biological samples taken from hair, body tissue, or fluids such as saliva, semen, or blood. Forensic analysis of loci on the DNA then produces a DNA profile. DNA profiling is less conclusive than DNA fingerprinting, as it examines considerably fewer loci or markers of a person’s DNA. At present, DNA profiling cannot examine all the differences between people’s DNA; thus, although they will not have the same entire DNA sequence or genome, there is a remote chance that two unrelated people could have the same DNA profile. Hence the discriminatory power of any DNA profile increases with the number of loci tested. When DNA typing first started being used to facilitate police investigations in England and Wales, the standard analysis involved the examination of 6 loci. Now they examine 10 (plus 1 that indicates gender). The United States currently examines 13 sites. Given the number of loci that are now examined, unrelated people are extremely unlikely to have the same DNA profile, and if they are collected and analyzed correctly, DNA profiles are accepted by scientists as well as the courts as being conclusive enough to establish identification irrefutably.