So, textile manufacture played an outstanding role in the process of the early Industrial revolutions as it promoted the upgrade of the domestic technologies on the factory level, as well as furthered the development of subsequent technologies in the related industries.
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However, there have been no global studies made of the Portuguese textile industries, to verify the relative significance of each of those industries.
Keywords: Sustainability, textiles, discard In today’s fast fashion culture, people are disposing of clothes faster and more frequently than ever before.
Today, as Yuzen textile patterns join the traditional Chiyogami ones on paper, both terms are used interchangeably. We have chosen "Chiyogami" simply because it was the term originally created to refer to paper (-gami means paper).
Executive Summary The objective of this paper is to examine how the development of a textile industry contributes to economic growth in the global economy.
Today, as Yuzen textile patterns join the traditional Chiyogami ones on paper, both terms are used interchangeably. We have chosen “Chiyogami” simply because it was the term originally created to refer to paper (-gami means paper).
Protectionism hunters: This year marks the 46th year of publication of Textile Asia since its debut in 1970. It has also been six years since Textile Asia's founder, publisher, and editor-in-chief, Kayser Sung, passed away. The magazine has continued to publish without interruption, upholding the legacy of Mr Sung.
Kayser Sung came to textile journalism primed from his previous experiences as reporter and feature writer for Reuters, then as managing editor and publisher of the Far Eastern Economic Review. At that time, truthful and objective reporting in Asia was fraught with hurdles. Collecting actual data then was a costly process which not many publishers could undertake, and governments were reluctant to permit critical examination of the state of economic affairs in their countries while politics led some national leaders to disguise or disregard economic realities. In 1964, Mr Sung received the Ramon Magsaysay Award for journalism and literature jointly with Dick Wilson, then editor of the Far Eastern Economic Review. The Magsaysay Award was in recognition of their accuracy, impartiality and continuing search for facts and insights in recording Asia's quest for economic advance. The citation also said: "In their editing of the Review, they have demonstrated that journalism can play a constructive role in fostering healthy growth." Mr Sung once said, "Journalism was my choice of profession because I had strong views on the necessity for an informed public, and consequently for accurate information and for free and, as far as possible, unprejudiced comment."
Mr Sung had researched and written extensively about the rise of the Asian textile industry. In the early 1960s, he edited the Hong Kong Textile Annual and the Asian Textile Annual and Survey. His expertise was sought by the United Nations in 1965 when he was asked to join a four-member textile experts group in a research project on the Asian textile industry for the Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East (ECAFE). A collection of his writings on the textile industry has been published in a 2,022-page chronicle, Asia in the Textile World 1950s to 2000. From the prestigious Textile Institute in Manchester, he received the Medal of the Council of the Textile Institute (1983), Companionship of the Institute (1999), and the Honorary Fellowship Award of the Institute (2010), the highest award, for innovative contribution to the advancement of the global textile and clothing industry.
Mr Sung also had a long association with the Hong Kong Economic Association (HKEA) of which he was vice-president from 1966 to 2000, and afterward a member of its executive committee. In 2012, the HKEA introduced its annual Best Paper Award, chosen from articles published in its serial publication, the Pacific Economic Review. The first award was dedicated to the memory of Kayser Sung. Most fittingly, the award went to Michael Dooley (University of California, Santa Cruz), David Folkerts-Landau (Deutsche Bank) and Peter Garber (Deutsche Bank) for their paper "Bretton Woods II Still Defines the International Monetary System" (PEW 14:297-311 (2009). The paper explores how the international monetary system still operates in the way described by the Bretton Woods II framework; failure to identify the causes of the current crisis risks a rise in protectionism that could intensify and prolong the decline in economic activity around the world.
Throughout his career, Mr Sung had been a vocal opponent of textile protectionism, particularly since 1960 when he was commissioned by the Hong Kong Cotton Merchants' Association to compile the history of Hong Kong's textile and clothing industry concerning the course of its textile trade negotiations with Lancashire. After protracted negotiations, the British Cotton Board succeeded in wringing out an agreement from Hong Kong, which set a precedent for India and Pakistan. The Americans sought similar arrangements with Hong Kong and other big textile exporting territories, leading to the Short Term Arrangement regarding Trade in Cotton Textiles and, subsequently, the Long-Term Arrangement. The Multifibre Arrangement (MFA) was introduced in 1974, imposing quotas for developing countries' export to developed countries. Mr Sung was instrumental in collecting and disseminating information that clarified the issues concerning quota restrictions.
He once wrote: "My primary concern was with the obvious derogation from the principles of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), the cornerstone of the world's post-WWII prosperity. I also desired fair play for the exporters, which, except for Japan, were all economically backward. Their exports, it was evident, would enable them to buy the developed world's machinery and technology, the less they were allowed to export, the less that developed countries could hope to sell their specialties. Conversely, free trade in textiles would promote the prosperity of all concerned. I, therefore, called constantly for an end to the MFA and reintegration of world textile trade into the GATT system."
GATT was a multilateral agreement among 153 countries for reducing tariffs and other trade barriers and eliminating preferences on a reciprocal and mutually advantageous basis. Within his lifetime, Mr Sung was able to witness the implementation of GATT into the WTO Agreement on Textile and Clothing, and finally, the abolition of quota restrictions on textile and clothing trade beginning on January 1, 2005.
With the elimination of quota restrictions, protectionism in the post-2005 era has taken on more creative forms. Export subsidies and countervailing duties, dumping and anti-dumping tariffs, industry subsidies both direct and indirect, are common, and can be approved by the WTO depending on circumstances. Mr Sung would have a grand time looking at these non-quota protectionist measures and figuring out fair solutions for all parties concerned.
If you would like to find out what certain fashion and textile terms mean, please select on the corresponding start letter of the word, find the term and see what it says.
For all intents and purposes, these terms describe the same paper: silkscreened patterned papers. Yuzen refers to the elaborate, gold-highlighted patterns originally used in the Kyoto textile industry, while Chiyogami (literally "thousand generations paper") is the word for woodblock-printed papers developed in the Edo period.