Jet" alt="link" border="0"> On May 13, 1986, the New York Times that the French Interior Ministry had received confessions for three terrorist bombings including the Marks & Spencer department stores in Paris and London.
Concerned about the limited availability of terrorism coverage in high-risk areas and its impact on the economy, Congress passed the Terrorism Risk Insurance Act (TRIA). The Act provides a temporary program that, in the event of major terrorist attack, allows the insurance industry and federal government to share losses according to a specific formula. TRIA was signed into law on November 26, 2002, and renewed again for two years in December 2005. Passage of TRIA enabled a market for terrorism insurance to begin to develop because the federal backstop effectively limits insurers’ losses, greatly simplifying the underwriting process. TRIA was extended for another seven years to 2014 in December 2007 and renewed again for six years in January 2015. The new law is known as the Terrorism Risk Insurance Program Reauthorization Act (TRIPRA) of 2015.
The letter, which appeared on the paper's front page, was written by Iraqi intelligence and discussed an intention to meet with Ayman Al-Zawahiri in order to examine a plan drawn up by the Iraqi presidency to carry out a "revenge operation" in Saudi Arabia.
Government Officials Were Substantiated By Intelligence Information." Among the conclusions (page 71), it reported that public statements by government officials that Iraq (prior to the war) provided safe haven for Abu Musab al-Zarqawi and other al-Qaida related terrorist members was substantiated by intelligence assessments.
Because Saddams security organizations and Osama bin Ladens terrorist network operated with similar aims (at least in the short term), considerable overlap was inevitable when monitoring, contacting, financing, and training the same outside groups.
Austria: A terrorism pool has been in operation in Austria since 2002. The pool provides reinsurance protection against property damage and business interruption up to a certain limit. Insurers issue a separate terrorism policy and then transfer, or “cede,” the business to the pool. Participation in the pool is voluntary, but almost all insurers belong.
Australia: Legislation was passed in 2003, under which terrorism exclusions in commercial policies are nullified once the government has declared that a terrorist incident has occurred. The legislation also created a reinsurance pool to cover insurance company losses from property, business interruption and third-party liability coverages, subject to a certain insurance company deductible, about 4 percent of property insurance premium. Insurers pay premiums into the pool which is back-stopped by the government. The program covers chemical and biological attacks but not nuclear attacks.
Special Terrorism Insurance Programs in Other Countries: The United States is not the first country to establish a terrorism insurance program. Some countries created programs to cover terrorism after September 11 or earlier, following a terrorist attack on their own soil. Below are some examples. See for more information.
Under current tax law, insurers can only put money aside in special funds or "reserves" to pay for claims if an event, such as a terrorist attack, has already occurred. Funds to pay for catastrophic losses come from an insurer's policyholders' surplus, which acts as a financial cushion in such situations. As a general rule, an insurer must maintain a certain level of capital and surplus to support the insurance policies it has issued. If it allows its surplus to drop significantly below industry standards and claims from a major terrorist attack create a drain on its assets, it may become insolvent. But if it increases its policyholders' surplus to fund an event that may only happen once in a lifetime, it incurs opportunity costs—the loss of a chance to do something more economically productive with the money, such as generating additional business.
In return for the federal backstop, commercial insurers must make terrorism coverage available and conspicuously state the premium charges; policyholders may, of course, reject the offer and choose to mitigate this class of risk in other ways. In offering terrorism coverage to their policyholders, commercial insurers must make it available on the same terms and conditions as they offer in their non-TRIA coverage.
Under the 2007 amendment, to be covered by the federal program, an act of terrorism must be committed by individuals acting as part of an effort to influence the policy or conduct of the United States. The law also requires that the act be certified by the Secretary of the Treasury in concurrence with the Secretary of State and the Attorney General. Insurers do not pay the federal government for this reinsurance coverage. A single terrorist act must cause aggregate losses in excess of $5 million to be certified under TRIA.
France: Under a law passed in 1986, terrorism must be covered. Since 2002, terrorism has been covered by a reinsurance pool to which terrorism risk above a certain retention level is transferred. Insurers pay premiums to the pool. They are divided up among the participants in each of the four different layers of risk with the government-owned Caisse Central de Reassurance receiving 10 percent of premiums for providing the top layer of unlimited coverage. The government pays for all terrorist claims that exceed a specific amount. Premiums are set according to the insured amount, not the riskiness of the location.