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The term sonar is also used for the ..

0ne of the earliest studies of noise effects on cows was an attempt to determine the relationship between the nervous system and the ejection of milk of three Jersey cows at the Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station (Ely and Peterson 1941). The left half of the udder of each cow was denervated. After recovering from surgery, all three cows began ejecting milk normally. The denervated half of the udder was able to eject milk just as well as the intact half. 0ne cow was then subjected to various experiments to determine the effect of the nerve supply to the glands under various conditions, such as fright caused by loud noises. Fright was induced by exploding paper bags every 10 seconds for 2 minutes just prior to attaching the mechanical milker. This resulted in an immediate cessation of milk production. Thirty minutes following exposure to exploding paper bags, 70% normal milk production occurred. No difference in response between the two halves of the udder was observed. Injections of adrenalin gave similar results. The amount of adrenalin injected appeared to determine the length of time needed before natural milk ejection resumed. Presumably, this length of time would be proportional to degree of fright. Fright, such as that caused by a loud sound, could stimulate the natural production of adrenalin.

Whether your thinking is loopy or linear, or a mix of the two, Sonar is one of the top choices for PC users making music at all levels, from serious home studio to top‑line professional facility.The Producer Edition, reviewed here, has an amazing collection of free virtual instrument, signal processing and MIDI processing plug‑ins that give real meaning to the term 'added value'.

The term sonar is also used for the equipment used ..

Download What is a Sidescan Sonar White Paper from …

SONAR is an American term dating from World War II and isnow used universally to describe all underwater detection equipment.

The term interferometry is used to describe a set of techniques to derive three-dimensional image information from a target scene, making use of the phase differences between signals received at two (or more) sensors separated by a small distance. These techniques find applications in many domains, using radiofrequency, optical, or acoustic signals. The aim of the present paper is to provide a comparison of sonar and radiofrequency techniques, pointing out the similarities and differences between them, and perhaps suggesting some areas for cross-fertilization.

Abstract: Understanding the active sonar equation is a fundamental skill for a course in Underwater Acoustics and Sonar such as that taught at the United States Naval Academy. Students must develop an intuitive understanding of each term in both the noise limited and reverberation limited cases. In this tabletop demonstration, the angular dependence of the Target Strength term is explored using commercially available 25 and 40 kHz airborne piezoelectric transducer/receiver pairs. By rotating standard target shapes (e.g. rectangular plates, circular plates, finite cylinders, ellipsoids), reflected intensity is measured as a function of angle of rotation. The measured data is compared with that predicted by standard theoretical models. While the same measurements could be made in a tank using submerged transducers, the airborne transducers offer the advantage of lower cost and simplicity of apparatus. Additionally, unwanted modal interference from sound reflection off tank surfaces is reduced in the airborne measurement. By direct observation, future sonar operators and designers are able to study target strength in order to understand how to position their sensors to optimize their own active sonar performance while positioning their own ships to minimize detection by opposition active sonar.

the more modern term SONAR was borne, ..

This body was formed during the war of 1914-1918, and organizedmuch research and experimentation for the detection of submarines, however,no committee bearing this name has been found in the Admiralty archives."This newspaper article titled "Inventor of Sonar Ignored By History"was written by Geoff McMaster of the Express News Staff and gives someinsight about the invention of ASDIC/SONAR.

Inthe RCN, the term SONAR started coming into general useage around 1955and in the Royal Navy, around 1964.

Abstract: Understanding the active sonar equation is a fundamental skill for a course in Underwater Acoustics and Sonar such as that taught at the United States Naval Academy. Students must develop an intuitive understanding of each term in both the noise limited and reverberation limited cases. In this tabletop demonstration, the angular dependence of the Target Strength term is explored using commercially available 25 and 40 kHz airborne piezoelectric transducer/receiver pairs. By rotating standard target shapes (e.g. rectangular plates, circular plates, finite cylinders, ellipsoids), reflected intensity is measured as a function of angle of rotation. The measured data is compared with that predicted by standard theoretical models. While the same measurements could be made in a tank using submerged transducers, the airborne transducers offer the advantage of lower cost and simplicity of apparatus. Additionally, unwanted modal interference from sound reflection off tank surfaces is reduced in the airborne measurement. By direct observation, future sonar operators and designers are able to study target strength in order to understand how to position their sensors to optimize their own active sonar performance while positioning their own ships to minimize detection by opposition active sonar.

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Blog-Video paper: Combined Laser/Multibeam Sonar Survey of ..


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This Paper presents overall views on SONAR Communication Technology. In this paper we will Highlight on some of the Points, like its Applications, Advantages / uses, Types etc. and we’ll see the Working of SONAR. But before that we would like to introduce about SONAR technology in brief. The term sonar is also used for the equipment used to generate and receive the sound. Sonar (originally an acronym for Sound Navigation And Ranging) anging) is a technique that uses sound propagation (usually underwater, as in Submarine navigation) to navigate, communicate with or detect other vessels. Two types of SONAR mainly Active and Passive, are described in our Paper. Both of these are used as a means of acoustic location and of measurement of the echo characteristics of "targets " in the water. In its Application we’ll see, how it works for Mapping the Seafloor, Determining Water Depth, Locating Fishes…etc. Next, we’ll see the Future of this Technology. I have tried to Give a Simple and Clear Idea about SONAR Communication technology in this Paper.

RPI publishes paper on the successful use of side scan sonar

Because the scatterersresponsible for the echoes are presumably at rest inthe water, the range rate at which the vessel isapproaching these scatterers and the magnitudeof the accompanying Doppler effect are determinedsolely by the speed of sonar vessel and the relativebearing of the sound beam.

List of computer term etymologies - Wikipedia

Mammals that use echolocation or biological sonar to perceive the locations of objects in their environments have unusual acute capacities for localizing sound (echo) sources and for perceiving reverberation, because they rely on echolocation for spatial perception (Simmons 1983). Porpoises determine the distance to targets in water from the arrival time of echoes. The sonar signals that they emit are directional; porpoises may transmit different waveforms as well as different signal amplitudes in different directions.

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