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M., 1977, The microbiology of aquatic oil spills, Adv.

Strandings of both and sea turtles increased significantly in the years following the spill. "From 2002 to 2009, the Gulf averaged 63 dolphin deaths a year. That rose to 125 in the seven months after the spill in 2010 and 335 in all of 2011, averaging more than 200 a year since April 2010," . Since then, dolphin deaths have declined, and long-term impacts on the population are not yet known. Kemp's ridley sea turtle nests have gone down in the years since the spill, and long-term effects are not yet known.

Transportation of oil and gas along parts of the NEP is expected to increase in the years ahead, particularly in the Barents Sea. There will always be a risk connected oil and gas activities and shipping in the Barents Sea. However, shipping contributes considerably more to the overall risk of acute oil pollution than the oil and gas industry. Nevertheless, in spite of an expected increase in the volume of shipping, the implementation of measures such as traffic separation schemes and vessel traffic service centres will reduce the risk of oil spills associated with shipping .

These two oil spills were both disasters and had greater effects in certain categories....

Existing strategies of cleaning up oil spills are not up to the task.

Some of the many effects on animals coming into contact with crude oil include:

G., 1978, Acute toxicity and dispersing effectiveness of oil spill dispersants: Results of a Canadian oil dispersant testing program (1973 to 1977), in: Chemical Dispersants for the Control of Oil Spills (L.

9.45pm: The aftershocks of the BP spill continue to be felt in Washington, especially at the government agency formerly known as the Minerals Management Service, which has suffered from staffing shortages and a cozy relationship with the oil industry.

Both of these major companies have had massive oil spills.

The BP investigators stressed eight problems and failures that may have culminated with the April 20 rig explosion that left 11 workers dead and triggered the nation's worst offshore oil spill. But they repeatedly honed in on the failure of the cement job at the site, a focus that shifts attention to the work done by the cement contractor Halliburton.

Because of the spill sent about 170 million barrels of crude oil was sent into the Gulf of Mexico.

Energy stocks rose after Fitch Ratings raised its credit rating of BP. BP also released an internal report that largely spread blame from the oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico to rig owner Transocean and contractor Halliburton as well as itself.

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The Exxon Valdez oil spill happened in Alaska in 1989.


Bp had an even more oil spill in 2010.

10pm: One question is, what other inquiries are there into the Gulf oil spill and Deepwater Horizon disaster? There are , believe it or not, but there are three that really count.

Oil spills happen mainly due to captain and crew errors.

E., 1968, The biochemistry and microbiology of crude oil degradation, in: The Biological Effects of Oil Pollution on Littoral Communities, Supplement to Field Studies Vol.

Oil spills effect the carbon cycle directly.

8pm: The FT's Lex columnists think the report was a generally good thing for BP to have done, on the grounds that: "At least BP has spoken first. It can now get ahead of its peers in improving rig safety." That would be BP's peers who haven't had a giant oil spill disaster.

Moreover, oil spills damage the planet and society in numerous ways.

The OPA improved the nation's ability to prevent and respond to oil spills by establishing provisions that expand the federal governments's ability, and provide the money and resources necessary, to respond to oil spills.

C., 1990, Oil spillage in Antartica, Environ.

The United States government and Congress have implemented various legislations in order to hopefully reduce oil spills and aid in the clean up, should an oil spill occur.

J., 1977, The reclamation of agricultural soils after oil spills: I.

Although, there are many other reasons for oil spills such as weather conditions, illegal dumping, countries at war or terrorists attempting to get a countries attention....

A., 1974, The fate of spilled oil in the soil, Hydrol.

M., 1991, Bioremediation technology development and application to the Alaskan spill, in: Proceedings of the 1991 International Oil Spill Conference, American Petroleum Institute, Washington, D.C., pp.

Effects of oil spillage to the Dalian population - Research Paper ..

Only that kind of time will tell what the abundance of life in the Mississippi Delta and the Gulf of Mexico reveals about the of the oil that spewed from BP's Macondo well in 2010. "We are trying to link exposure to effect," Whitehead says. "We are asking the organisms themselves to tell us: 'Has there been a relevant exposure?'"

Editor's Note: Reporting for this article took place as a result of a fellowship from the at the University of Rhode Island.

Oil spillage contingency plan by Kuwait Coast Guard …

And the fact that the spill occurred at sea—and beneath 1,500 meters of water—spared some of the most productive fisheries and spawning grounds in the world. "What is arriving at shore is much less toxic, much less difficult to deal with than what is coming out of the wellhead," says biologist Christopher D'Elia, dean of the School of the Coast and Environment at Louisiana State University. "If [the spill] had been closer, we would have been in much more trouble."

In the meantime, the Gulf shores enjoy a profusion of tarballs and tar mats in excess of the ones that are always present as a result of natural seeps. "I have spent every summer of my life in Gulf Shores, [Ala.,] and I have never seen anything that is remotely close to what we have here now," Callaway says. "You just run your fingers through the sand and you've got hundreds, depending on when the last time they did a deep clean."

Such "deep cleans" have their own impacts. "There weren't sand crab holes anywhere—those are a major chunk of the food web," Callaway adds. "I didn't see periwinkles or clams along the shoreline. I'm hoping that is temporary and not long-lasting."

But evidence from prior oil spills suggests that Macondo well oil will be a part of the Gulf Coast for a very long time. " for much longer in the environment than anyone expected," Whitehead notes of the Exxon Valdez spill. "The oil was gone from the surface pretty quickly but sediment-associated organisms were persistently exposed to oil over long periods of time—we're talking five to 10 years after the spill."

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