Prakash, an assistant professor of bioengineering at Stanford, is the proprietor of "frugal science," a term he coined to explain the movement toward building cheap versions of high tech tools.
Electron microscopes also use special electrostatic lenses that can maneuver the electron beams needed to form the images in the microscope eyepiece or the photographic film. On the other hand, optical microscopes use normal glass lenses that direct light onto a specimen that can then make an image visible to the human eye. In terms of cost, the optical microscopes are cheaper to acquire and maintain as compared to electron microscopes that are more expensive. They also require constant stable sources of electricity to operate.
Are the overall strategy, methodology, and analyses well-reasoned and appropriate to accomplish the specific aims of the project? Are potential problems, alternative strategies, and benchmarks for success presented? If the project is in the early stages of development, will the strategy establish feasibility and will particularly risky aspects be managed?
If the project involves human subjects and/or NIH-defined clinical research, are the plans to address 1) the protection of human subjects from research risks, and 2) inclusion (or exclusion) of individuals on the basis of sex/gender, race, and ethnicity, as well as the inclusion or exclusion of children, justified in terms of the scientific goals and research strategy proposed?
Reviewers will consider each of the review criteria below in the determination of scientific merit, and give a separate score for each. An application does not need to be strong in all categories to be judged likely to have major scientific impact. For example, a project that by its nature is not innovative may be essential to advance a field.
When the proposed project involves human subjects and/or NIH-defined clinical research, the committee will evaluate the proposed plans for the inclusion (or exclusion) of individuals on the basis of sex/gender, race, and ethnicity, as well as the inclusion (or exclusion) of children to determine if it is justified in terms of the scientific goals and research strategy proposed. For additional information on review of the Inclusion section, please refer to the .
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We also voted on the winners of the 20th Oklahoma Ugly Bug Contest, which provides fun activities and a microscope for winning primary (1-5th grade) schools and intermediate students (6th grade).
In skin there is an established link between tissuedamage, inflammation and cancer development. Tumorigenesis is basedon constitutive pathway activation, while inflammation is aself-limiting process in normal conditions (). In the framework of this review,chronic inflammation of the skin can be one of the traits for tumorinitiation and progression. In animal models, chronic inflammationmay be used to trigger tumorigenesis. The long-term production andthe consequent accumulation of inflammatory factors(cytokines/chemokines) can induce locally an immunosuppressivemilieu associated with tumor development and progression ().
The winners of the Timpano Award were First Prize: Kayla Miller for "Choride and Sulfate Exchange in Short-Term, Low Temperature Brine + Jarosite Experiments" by Kayla M.
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a processthrough which epithelial cells lose some of their characteristics(cell polarity and cell-cell adhesion) and gain migratory andinvasive properties, becoming mesenchymal stem cells (). When a wound is healing, the EMTprocess is activated ().Epidermal keratinocytes acquire migratory phenotypes () and then return to normal upon woundclosure during the rebuilding of the basement membrane. In tumors,epithelial cells can harbor oncogenic mutations, undergoing EMT, aprocess associated with the acquisition of cancer stem cellproperties (). Another recentlydiscovered cellular process, transdifferentiation, is a mechanismthat governs the transformation of a mature somatic cell in anothermature somatic cell lacking the intermediate pluripotent state orprogenitor cell type phases ().In adult tissues, transdifferentiation is not as accelerated as inmore immature ones; however, in wounding, mesenchymal stem cellsundergo transdifferentiation into epidermal cells, endothelialcells and pericytes (,).
The specimen reflects the beam that is now loaded with information about the scanned cell or sample in a magnified form by the objective lens of the electron microscope. The variation in the size of the magnification can be later changed by projecting the final image onto a photographic surface. The most preferred materials used commercially are phosphoric paper and zinc sulfide paper. Some types of microscopes record the image directly onto the photographic paper that is placed directly on the electron beam (Krumeick, 2012).
Another mechanism that can link inflammation withtumorigenesis is the fact that during wound healing, fibroblastsdeposit excess collagen (during fibrosis), which leads to scarformation. This connective tissue is a microenvironment that istumor permissive (). As statedabove, in this microenvironment, the presence/production of growthfactors, cytokines and chemokines is similar in chronic wounds asin tumors, with a slight difference being in the expression levelsin terms of kinetics () (seealso ).
Her interests include materials for quantum computing, catalysis, and technique development in tomography, in-situ liquid and gas microscopy, and EELS.