Jacobson MZ. 2010. Short-term effects of controlling fossil-fuel soot, biofuel soot and gases, and methane on climate, Arctic ice, and air pollution health. J Geophys Res 115:D14209; doi: [Online 29 July 2010].
We estimated the potential future air quality and health benefits resulting from implementing 14 specific methane and BC emission control measures selected for their near-term climate benefits (). We estimate that these measures could reduce global population-weighted average surface PM2.5 and ozone concentrations by 3.98–4.92 µg/m3 (23.0–33.7%) and 4.71–11.0 ppb (6.5–17.0%), respectively, and avoid 0.6–4.4 and 0.04–0.52 million annual premature deaths globally in 2030. More than 80% of the health benefits of these measures are estimated to occur in Asia. Based on our estimates, avoided deaths would represent 1–8% of cardiopulmonary and lung cancer deaths among those ≥ 30 years of age and 1–7% of all deaths for all ages, assuming constant baseline mortality rates. BC mitigation measures would account for approximately 98% of the estimated deaths avoided, because BC mitigation would also reduce emissions of non-methane ozone precursors and organic carbon and because concentration–response relationships are stronger for PM2.5 than for ozone. Our estimates are consistent with previous health impact assessments of BC and methane reductions (; ; ) after accounting for methodological differences [see Supplemental Material, ()].
Objectives: We examined the air quality and health benefits of 14 specific emission control measures targeting BC and methane, an ozone precursor, that were selected because of their potential to reduce the rate of climate change over the next 20–40 years.
Conclusions: In addition to climate benefits, our findings indicate that the methane and BC emission control measures would have substantial co-benefits for air quality and public health worldwide, potentially reversing trends of increasing air pollution concentrations and mortality in Africa and South, West, and Central Asia. These projected benefits are independent of carbon dioxide mitigation measures. Benefits of BC measures are underestimated because we did not account for benefits from reduced indoor exposures and because outdoor exposure estimates were limited by model spatial resolution.
The term ‘Quality’ in some engineering organisations may be used to specify that a piece of metal conforms to a definite physical dimension and characteristics often set down in the form of a particular ‘compact’ specification.
Emission scenarios and modeling. We used five emissions scenarios developed for the UNEP/WMO assessment to examine methane and BC mitigation impacts on air quality and health globally and in five world regions [see Supplemental Material, ()]. These scenarios include a present-day (2005) reference case, a 2030 reference scenario that incorporates International Energy Agency energy projections () and all presently agreed upon (but no additional) policies affecting emissions (see Supplemental Material, and ), and three different policy scenarios in which varying degrees of additional emission controls are implemented by 2030. To isolate the impacts of anthropogenic emission changes, all scenarios assume identical meteorology and natural emissions [including open biomass burning (i.e., wildfires); year 2000]. The emission scenarios and their projected effects on climate are detailed by and are summarized in Supplemental Material, .
Tropospheric ozone and black carbon (BC), a component of fine particulate matter (PM ≤ 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter; PM2.5), have been associated with deleterious effects on human health (e.g., ; ; ), agriculture (e.g., ), and climate (e.g., ). Methane, a relatively short-lived greenhouse gas (residence time 8–10 years), is an ozone precursor that affects background ozone concentrations. Controlling methane emissions may be a promising means of simultaneously mitigating climate change and reducing global ozone concentrations, compared with controlling shorter-lived ozone precursors [nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs)] (, ). The latter may have larger and more immediate air quality and health benefits near the areas with emission reductions but smaller benefits (CO, NMVOC) or net disbenefits (NOx) for climate. Major anthropogenic sources of methane include fossil fuel production and distribution, landfills, livestock, rice cultivation, and wastewater treatment. BC is a product of incomplete combustion from sources such as biomass burning, transportation (mainly diesel vehicles), residential combustion, and industry, and is coemitted with other pollutants, including NOx, NMVOCs, CO, sulfur dioxide (SO2), and organic carbon. Climate benefits of reducing BC may be partially offset by associated reductions of coemitted pollutants that may have a net cooling effect on climate (and a net warming effect when reduced), either directly (organic carbon) or after chemical transformation in the atmosphere (organic carbon, SO2, and NOx). However, all emission reductions leading to reduced ozone and PM2.5 concentrations would be expected to have health benefits.
Citation: Anenberg SC, Schwartz J, Shindell D, Amann M, Faluvegi G, Klimont Z, Janssens-Maenhout G, Pozzoli L, Van Dingenen R, Vignati E, Emberson L, Muller NZ, West JJ, Williams M, Demkine V, Hicks WK, Kuylenstierna J, Raes F, Ramanathan V. 2012. Global Air Quality and Health Co-benefits of Mitigating Near-Term Climate Change through Methane and Black Carbon Emission Controls. Environ Health Perspect 120:831–839;
According to Cherry and Jacob in the Book Contemporary Nursing: Issues Trends and Management 5th Edition, “Quality Management is the philosophic framework for managing organizations that recognize quality is determined by customer needs and expectations, attention is paid to how the work is done, with an emphasis on involving people who best understand the detail of the work practices with which they are involved.
Nevertheless, an effective culture of quality systems and continuous improvement cannot be met by an absence of managerial responsibility, to gain customer loyalty, and potential new clients (Beardsell,Dale,1999).However, Pars Food Ltd need to use supply chain management strategically to gain competitive advantage of working s...
The Quantitative Methods Paper is made up of five sections:Introduction
Discussion and ConclusionThese sections are discussed below. Sure the introduction to any paper introduces your paper to the reader, butthe introduction section is more important than that to anacademic paper (yes, that's what you are writing). There are many papersand journals out there in the world for social scientists to read. Your introductionneeds to convince the sociologist that he or she needs to spend precious timereading YOUR paper. If you can't show why studying your dependentvariable is important in a couple of paragraphs, then you need to get a newdependent variable. Why are things interesting or important? Perhapsit is because the topic is controversial (Some people believe/feel/act one way,and some another.). In any event that is the point of the intro. In this section, the main question thatneeds to be answered is what has been written before on your topic? Inparticular, you are interested in what has been written concerning anyrelationship between your dependent variable and your independentvariables. In a normal academic paper, you need to demonstrate that youknow every detail of the material important to your hypotheses. However,in this class I am only asking you to produce a minimal literature review.