Regarding crime victim impact, researchers for more than a decade have been able to make the claim that crime victims who participate in face-to-face restorative justice dialogue processes with offenders experience greater satisfaction than those who participate in court or other adversarial processes. Though “selection effects” leave open the possibility that victims who choose to participate in these processes are predisposed to report greater satisfaction than those who do not, the consistency and strength of these results are nonetheless persuasive. In recent years, experimental research has also verified the effectiveness of restorative conferencing in reducing posttraumatic stress syndrome in crime victims.
A research paper is a piece of academic writing that provides information about a particular topic that you’ve researched. It’s not as simple as writing an essay about your summer vacation, your family, or the last party you’ve been to, because you don’t have to do research to find out about your own personal experience. On the other hand, a paper about a topic such as ancient civilizations, capital punishment, civil society, or the history of advertising does qualify as a research paper. These are topics about which you, yourself, are not an expert, but that you can learn about by reading the work of experts—in other words, by doing research. Then you can summarize, analyze, and communicate in writing what you have learned. Ideally, you will do that in a clear and interesting way.
The Division of Juvenile Justice Services provides comprehensive services for at-risk youth within the framework of the Balanced and Restorative Justice Model....
The vision and mission of the Division of Juvenile Justice Services to provide youth the best opportunity to realize their potential and improve their competence allowing them to be law-abiding and productive citizens.
We recruited community-dwelling adult volunteers who were criminal justice offenders and who had a history of opioid dependence. Eligibility criteria were current (within the previous 12 months) or lifetime (any previous) opioid dependence (as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition [DSM-IV]); a stated goal of opiate-free treatment rather than opioid-agonist or partial-agonist maintenance therapy; an opioid-free status as confirmed by negative urine toxicologic screening for all opioids before randomization; residence in the community and receipt of an adjudicated sentence that included supervision (e.g., parole, probation, outpatient drug-court programs, or other court-mandated treatment) or, in the previous 12 months, release from jail or prison, a plea-bargain arrangement, or any community supervision as above; general good health as determined by history and physical examination; an age of 18 to 60 years; and the ability to provide written informed consent.
B. The Principle of Stakeholder Involvement: Victims, offenders, and communities should have the opportunity for active involvement in the justice process as early and as fully as possible. The extent to which effective stakeholder involvement is achieved is assessed by the degree to which victims, offenders, and individuals from the community affected by a crime or harmful action are intentionally and actively engaged in decision making about how to accomplish this repair.
(B, 2005) The U.S made legal history in 1989 when the world’s first juvenile court opened in Chicago (Rank, J.) Since 1990 many states have also adopted the “get tough” approach to juvenile justice as a response to the increa...
C. The Principle of Transformation in Community and Government Roles and Relationships: The relative roles and responsibilities of government and community must be rethought. In promoting justice, government is responsible for preserving a just order, and community for establishing a just peace. The extent to which the community–government relationship is transformed in a restorative process is assessed by the degree to which a response to crime operationalizes a deliberate rethinking and reshaping of the role of the criminal justice system in relation to that of community members and groups.
Throughout this debate, you will hear about blacks being stoppedin white neighborhoods, about white women clutching their purses asblack men approach, about the difficulty of black men getting ataxi in urban centers late at night, about the glass ceiling, aboutthe lack of role models, about the percentage of black males inprison, and about the shortage of women in the Congress. All ofthese complaints warrant our attention, but none of them, no matterhow true, justifies a suspension of that warranty that I talkedabout.
More than a quarter of all prime time shows from the 1960s to the 1990s have centred on subjects of crime or criminal justice, which comprise the biggest single subject matter on television today, across all types of programming (Weigel and Jessor, 1999).
A. The Principle of Repair: Justice requires that healing be enabled for victims, offenders, and communities that have been injured by crime. The extent to which harm is repaired is assessed by the degree to which all parties identify the damage of a crime that needs to be addressed, and develop and carry out a plan to do so.
The problem of crime is of course much larger and more complex than the problem of the offender. Yet, criminal justice policy is in essence an offender-driven response, narrowly focused on arresting and processing lawbreakers. The principle of stakeholder involvement places a priority on engaging those most affected by crime—victim, community, and offender—in the justice process, and on the quality of this engagement. It also suggests an emphasis on the needs of key stakeholders and their obligations. Such needs are often different for each individual participant in the justice process and may vary in unpredictable ways—hence, the need for a meaningful, respectful engagement process that presumes multiple choices based on research and practice. Based on research and practice experience, it is possible, however, to describe general needs that have become quite common for each stakeholder in a crime or conflict.
Underlying restorative intervention is a set of basic values, most notably “respect,” democratic decision making, fairness, and so on. Core principles, on the other hand, are value-based assumptions that express ideal goals and objectives to be achieved in a justice process. Such principles also provide general normative guidelines for gauging the strength and integrity (sometimes called the “restorativeness”) of any response to crime and harm. Broad core principles (as articulated by Van Ness & Strong, 1997) that guide restorative justice practice, and also suggest independent but mutually reinforcing justice goals, can be stated as follows: