Good HRH governance starts with the recognition that the health workforce is diverse and acknowledges the fact that diversity often entails gendered disadvantage in accessing opportunities for education and occupation. It requires a comprehensive human rights-based approach that puts women at the center of efforts to hold governments and employers accountable for implementing international and national standards that guarantee women’s civil, social, political, and labour rights . In the health sector, this means bringing international human/labour rights and employment law discourse into HRH discourse, changing discriminatory laws and policies, and developing HRH policies that promote and protect the rights of the health workforce which, in many countries, may be over 75% female . Changing workforce governance at all levels is necessary because gender inequality and discrimination are human rights issues with practical workforce consequences (see Table ). These practical consequences will be difficult to manage effectively if HRH practitioners continue to see action as a purely technical fix. However, to the extent that they more accurately identify the issues, apply a human rights perspective, draw lessons from employment law in other sectors, and broaden the range of HRH solutions available, there is good reason to expect that these steps will improve the pipeline, recruitment, distribution, and retention of health workers.
Both protagonists are female, and because of this we see the theme of gender inequality developed in each novel, most profoundly in Nervous Conditions.
throughout this course, the authors discuss the causes and solutions of social problems such as the inequality towards sexual orientation, gender, race and poverty, from a systemic perspective....
According to Ridgeway (2011), gender inequality is regarded as an affair which the majority members of one sex is advantaged than the majority members of the other sex.
Gender equality should be an HRH research, leadership, and governance priority. As a priority, the aim should be to strengthen health pre-service and continuing professional education and employment systems to achieve better health systems outcomes, including better health coverage. There are a number of specific actions that can be carried out at the global, country, and institution levels to address gender discrimination and inequality in the health workforce (Table ), some of which have already been described. Implementing any of the suggested actions will likely move us closer to the robust health workforces needed to respond to today’s critical health care needs.
Anticipate health workers’ lifecycle needs, recognizing that sociocultural factors call for vigilance to assure equal opportunities, nondiscrimination, and gender equality in the workforce. This entails developing workplace policies, allocating resources, and restructuring education and work settings to integrate family and work and reflect the value of caregiving for women and men.
A community of gender and HRH research practice similar to the Joint Programme on Workplace Violence in the Health Sector should produce research guidance based on the conceptual framework, identifying a gender and HRH research agenda and developing guidelines for systematic research.
This disregard has some relationship to gender inequality which stems from the patriarchal qualities of our society, since nature is viewed as feminine and as something that men can control....
A unified conceptual framework for gender in the health workforce would span pre-service and continuing education and employment systems and include a taxonomy with significant gender inequalities as they operate in the health workforce, including gender discrimination and inequalities defined in measurable terms and workforce and health systems consequences.
HRH leaders can draw a number of lessons from the research evidence from systematic  and country-level studies. First, taken together, the evidence suggests that gender is indeed a key factor in the health workforce, operating in the professional education and employment systems in which health workers are recruited, trained, hired, remunerated, promoted, and retained - or lost. Second, there is evidence of a constellation of gender discrimination effects that are systemic, that is, not limited to one site in a system or one system. Third, the types of workplace discrimination documented in other sectors appear to be at work in the health sector. Fourth, the existing evidence warrants making gender inequality and gender discrimination an HRH research, policy, and management priority. Fifth, HRH leaders and managers should exploit data from multiple sources and perspectives to more fully understand gender dynamics and trends in the health workforce.
What underlies the gender-related inequalities in position, freedom of choice, and opportunity in the health workforce? To what extent do these inequalities reflect discrimination and contribute to problems in health workforce recruitment, distribution, and retention? Although the answers to these questions are in the early stages, it is clear that HRH leaders must consider gender discrimination and inequality as part of their health systems governance functions.
It should be noted that the Uganda findings come from health facilities in project districts purposively selected to capture a range of health workplace characteristics (for example, urban/rural, types and levels of facilities, nearness/distance from the capital). They cannot, therefore, be called representative. What is interesting, however, is that these public health sector results generally mirror the patterns of vertical occupational segregation found in Uganda’s larger civil service sector , where men predominate in senior and middle management (U1 and U2-U3, presumably the higher-paying jobs). Based on the study, the Uganda Ministry of Health has begun disseminating results and guidelines for gender mainstreaming into human resources management at decentralized levels to raise awareness of these issues with district health managers.
A noted labour economist observed that occupational segregation points to discrimination and limited opportunities because ‘When large segments of the labour force are in essence restricted from entering many occupations, freedom of choice is missing’ . The Kenya findings suggest a lack of freedom of choice for education and employment that is associated with occupational segregation. In response, the Kenyan Ministry of Health integrated HRIS gender reports in a training module in 2013 to raise awareness of gender inequality in human resources management (HRM).