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This definition permits us to view organized crimeon a vast continuum allowing for freedom of analyzing and defininga (38) given particular criminal group as an entity in itselfpossessing a variety of characteristics, as opposed to a rigidclassification based upon certain specific attributes.
Although, it is becoming a bigger and bigger part of crime, cybercrime will not be the only form of crime; it is not feasible for crime to just exist on the internet.
(Andersen & Taylor, 2007: 168)
The core of syndicated crime (commonly referred to as "organized crime") is the provision of illegal goods and services in a society that displays a continued and considerable demand for such goods and services.
The 2009 Internet Crime Report indicates there were 336,655 received cyber-crime complaints in 2009 and a total monetary loss of $559.7 million (“2009 Internet Crime Report,” 2009)....
This course provides an overview of the spatial aspects of crime and intelligence analysis. The concept of environmental criminology and the relevance of geographic information systems (GIS) to crime and intelligence analysis will be covered. Students will learn how to use visualization and spatial analysis technologies in order to detect criminal patterns and to forecast the probability, time and location of future criminal events. An integrated crime and intelligence analysis application, the i2 Analyst's Workstation and ESRI ArcView is included. Prerequisites: FSCT 8430 and FSCT 8433
this is not true of organized crime, where rules, agreements,and understandings forming the foundation of social structureappear among the individual participants as attitude...Whethera person is properly labeled an "organized criminal"depends in part on whether he exhibits the antilegal attitudeswhich accompany his adherence to the code of conduct...
The social category "organized crime" is being usedas if it were a legal category, thus hindering both the understandingand control of a serious economic, political, and social problem...(311)Now we are faced with the task of outlawing a social categoryof behavior because it consists of more than the legal categoriesit started out to describe.
Having established the credentials for warfighting for deterrence, this paper will now assess whether such an approach is suitable for cyber deterrence. In the first instance, we must deal with the issue of whether warfighting language makes any sense in the cyber domain. Martin Libicki (, 328-330, ) bemoans the use of military metaphors for operations in the cyber domain. He argues that so-called cyber warriors do not fight. Rather, they reverse engineer. Consequently, he thinks it more appropriate to talk in engineering, architecture and administrative terms. In contrast, General Shaw, then UK Assistant Chief of Defence Staff, discusses offensive operations in terms of manoeuvre. He calls for full integration of cyber operations into the joint environment, noting that emphasis should be placed on the effect, not the means of delivery: ‘[cyber] is merely the latest medium though which to achieve effect.’ (House of Commons Defence Committee ). Additionally, in their critique of cyber deterrence, Harknett, Callaghan and Kauffman () call for a warfighting approach to cyber strategy, placing emphasis on the offence-defence dynamic.
The prior efforts of social scientists to definecategories of crime in nonlegal terms are not very helpful inthe task of precisely identifying the division of labor whichis organized crime, for two reasons.
(Cressey, 1969: 310-1)
Is is helpful to specify, in a perliminary way, thatan organized crime is any crime committed by a person occupyinga position in an established division of labor designed for thecommission of crime...any o criminal's activities are coordinatedwith the activities of other criminals by means of rules...eachorganized criminal occupies a position in a set of positions whichexist independently of the incumbents.
(Gethackingsecurity, 2012) It took time for cyber crime to become prevalent because criminals did not have computer access, nor did they possess the expertise to use computers for criminal activities....