"Crack" is the name given to cocaine that has been processed with baking soda or ammonia, and transformed into a more potent, smokable, "rock" form. The name refers to the crackling sound heard when the rock is heated and smoked. Cocaine is a stimulant that has been abused for ages; however, crack cocaine is the most potent form in which the drug has ever appeared. There is great risk when using any form of cocaine, but crack cocaine is the riskiest form of the substance. Smoking a substance allows it to reach the brain more quickly than other routes of administration, and compulsive cocaine use will develop even more rapidly if the substance is smoked rather than snorted. Smoking crack cocaine brings an intense and immediate, but very short-lived high that lasts about fifteen minutes. A person can become addicted after his or her first time trying crack cocaine.
Crack cocaine research papers report that "crack" is a form of cocaine, but is manufactured at four to ten times the strength of cocaine.Â It is often smoked with or regular tobacco in a pipe.Â The name “crack” may have evolved because the resembles paint chips or slivers of soap, and makes a crackling sound when smoked.
Blanco managed to survive an era that was dangerous. Even though she was the cause of most of the deaths in the Cocaine Cowboys era, she still had rivals who wanted to eliminate her. Before she ran away, she had committed her first murder at the age of eleven, a murder that was described as a child killing another child. The ability to kill at such a tender age is still unbelievable. What prompted her to commit such a heinous act is still ambiguous to the public and the world. Her behavior might be attributed to the abuse she faced while she was still young from her mother. At the age of twelve, she ventured into prostitution, what prompts such a young girl to venture into the prostitution without being forced into the trade is still beyond human comprehension. How she survives in the outside world is still beyond human comprehension for such a young girl without anyone to offer her the guidance and protection.
Research findings by the National Institute of Drug Addiction (NIDA) demonstrate that cocaine not only effects the level of dopamine in the brain, but also the level of seratonin.
An appreciable tolerance to cocaine’s high may develop, with many addicts reporting that they seek but fail to achieve as much pleasure as they did from their first experience. Some users will frequently increase their doses to intensify and prolong the euphoric effects. While tolerance to the high can occur, users can also become more sensitive (sensitization) to cocaine’s anesthetic and convulsant effects, without increasing the dose taken. This increased sensitivity may explain some deaths occurring after apparently low doses of cocaine.
Blanco was one of the forces behind the prominent killings that plagued Miami as gangs tried to establish control and outdo each other. This became to be known as the cocaine cowboy wars when cocaine became the most used illegal drug surpassing marijuana at that time. She had a strong distribution network across the United States, which raked in an average of $8 million a month. She was extremely ruthless in her operations that fueled the violence by other gangs because they saw her as a threat, and she also considered other gangs as threats to her operations. Thus, it became a battle for supremacy and control over the drug trade. Due to aggravated rates of murder and the many fruitless attempts to have her eliminated, she was prompted to move away from Florida to California (Smitten 17). The drug trade in Miami was estimated to be worth more than $ 21 billion. This is still evident with the presence of beautiful villas and condominiums and other luxurious establishments such as casinos, hotels and restaurants that are a predominant sight in Miami and the whole of Florida. In 1985, she was arrested by the authorities for and taken to court where she was sentenced to ten years in jail. After her release in 2004, her whereabouts were still a mystery. The cocaine cowboy wars had a solid impact on the American people and the cities she went to because of her ruthless and aggression in getting whatever she considered worth having.
Many recall that “crack babies,” or babies born to mothers who used crack cocaine while pregnant, were at one time written off by many as a lost generation. They were predicted to suffer from severe, irreversible damage, including reduced intelligence and social skills. It was later found that this was a gross exaggeration. However, the fact that most of these children appear normal should not be overinterpreted as indicating that there is no cause for concern. Using sophisticated technologies, scientists are now finding that exposure to cocaine during fetal development may lead to subtle, yet significant, later deficits in some children, including deficits in some aspects of cognitive performance, information-processing, and attention to tasks—abilities that are important for success in school.
Estimating the full extent of the consequences of maternal drug abuse is difficult, and determining the specific hazard of a particular drug to the unborn child is problematic for many reasons. Multiple factors—such as the amount and number of all drugs abused; extent of prenatal care; possible neglect or abuse of the child; exposure to violence in the environment; socioeconomic conditions; maternal nutrition; other health conditions; and exposure to sexually-transmitted diseases—can contribute to the difficulty in determining direct impact of prenatal cocaine use on maternal, fetal, and child outcomes.
Yes. Cocaine abusers, especially those who inject, are at increased risk for contracting such infectious diseases as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/AIDS) and viral hepatitis. In fact, use and abuse of illicit drugs, including crack cocaine, are major risk factors for new cases of HIV. Drug abuse-related spread of HIV can result from direct transmission of the virus through the sharing of contaminated needles and paraphernalia between injecting drug users. It can also result from indirect transmission, such as an HIV-infected mother transmitting the virus perinatally to her child. This is particularly alarming given that 30 percent of all new AIDS cases are among women. Research has also shown that drug use can interfere with judge- ment about risk-taking behavior, and can potentially lead to reduced precautions regarding sexual behaviors, the sharing of needles and injection paraphernalia, and the trading of sex for drugs, by both men and women.
Research has revealed a potentially dangerous interaction between cocaine and alcohol. Taken in combination, the two drugs are converted by the body to cocaethylene. Cocaethylene has a longer duration of action in the brain and is more toxic than either drug alone. While more research needs to be done, it is noteworthy that the mixture of cocaine and alcohol is the most common two-drug combination that results in drug-related death.
There was an enormous increase in the number of people seeking treatment for cocaine addiction during the 1980s and 1990s. Treatment providers in most areas of the country, except in the West and Southwest, report that cocaine is the most commonly cited drug of abuse among their clients. The majority of individuals seeking treatment smoke crack, and are likely to be polydrug users, or users of more than one substance. The widespread abuse of cocaine has stimulated extensive efforts to develop treatment programs for this type of drug abuse. Cocaine abuse and addiction is a complex problem involving biological changes in the brain as well as a myriad of social, familial, and environmental factors. Therefore, treatment of cocaine addiction is complex, and must address a variety of problems. Like any good treatment plan, cocaine treatment strategies need to assess the psychobiological, social, and pharmacological aspects of the patient’s drug abuse.