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Find and download essays and research papers on BIOFUELS

Whether the additional carbon fixation is achieved by increasing P or decreasing R (or both), determining the best use of the fixed carbon then reduces to a question of economics. For example, making biofuel from wastes is but one way to avoid CO2 releases that would otherwise occur. Other options include managing the wastes to avoid decay, converting them to long-lived products or utilizing mainly the hydrogen for energy and sequestering the residual biochar. Biofuels do have value in the fuels market; nevertheless, carbon offsets may be more cost effective for mitigation, a likelihood highlighted by the way such offsets are viewed as cost containment measures for climate policy. In all cases, the starting point for comparing options needs to be in situ assessment of the change in NEP, which therefore requires knowledge of baseline NEP including any necessary adjustment for leakage. Options for the use of any additionally fixed carbon can then be evaluated by costs, market value, emissions and other environmental and social considerations.

Will 2102 be a break through year of sustainable, second generation biofuels in Europe?
This presentation will set the scene for the two-day biofuels track of the EMEA Pulp, Paper and Biofuels Summit 2012.

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The French term for biodiesel. It is a contraction of the words diesel and ester.

In fact, this analytic approach does allow for an increasing and potentially extensive use of biofuels for long-term climate mitigation. However, it constrains the rate of biofuel expansion to one that benefits the atmosphere a year at a time as determined by the availability of biomass that demonstrably reflects an increase in NEP. Thus, this framework can be viewed as offering policy guidance for achieving land use and feedstock sourcing conditions in line with mitigation scenarios involving biofuels (e.g., as reviewed in IPCC ). Such scenarios invoke assumptions regarding the availability of both land and technology for efficient conversion of cellulosic biomass produced under certain idealized land-use conditions. The present reality, however, is that of an expansion of biofuel use in the absence of commercially viable cellulosic conversion technology and, more importantly, in the absence of land-use governance that manages carbon at the scales impacted by biofuel feedstock demand. By underscoring the need to show that feedstock production measurably improves the terrestrial carbon balance, this analysis admittedly implies a cautious view of biofuels’ mitigation potential. At the same time, it suggests policy principles consistent with realizing a long-term role for biofuels among the broader set of options for bio-based climate mitigation.

The approach given here works forward incrementally from present conditions instead of modeling hypothetical future systems. By construction, it precludes an accumulation of carbon debt because it identifies conditions under which an increase in biofuel use yields an immediate atmospheric benefit. The analysis contrasts with LCA methods that justify a large near-term release of carbon stocks due to land-use change by invoking assumptions about future system dynamics under which the resulting carbon debt gets repaid. Some may raise a concern that the near-term focus of this analysis creates a distorted (overly pessimistic) view of the mitigation potential of biofuels relative to continued fossil fuel use.

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Biofuel proponents point out that productivity gains can minimize land-use impacts. However, productivity gains can also be directed toward more rapidly rebuilding terrestrial carbon stocks. Whether for supplying biofuel feedstocks or for recarbonizing the biosphere, evaluations need to be made according to region, biome type, land-use history and baseline conditions, non-carbon effects such as N2O emissions, other site-specific variables, and land and soil management practices (Lal et al ). Such an approach still faces the challenges of evaluating site and landscape carbon dynamics, including leakage. But by concentrating on specific locations where additional CO2 uptake is sought, it is possible to gain confidence by monitoring and making adjustments based on accumulating data. Circumscribed modeling of many effects will be needed, but location-specific characterization of carbon storage, GHG fluxes and other climatic effects is quite different than modeling fuel products at the terminus of a long, complex and dynamic chain of global impacts.

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In a paper published in , , a professor of at UW–Madison, and his collaborators mapped out an integrated approach for processing red maple biomass into a jet fuel that costs $4.75 a gallon. Supported by funding from the DARPA Office of Science, Huber’s study improves on previous research by factoring in the impurities of real biomass, an inefficiency that’s not accounted for in studies that use model compounds as a starting point.

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Biofuels - Types of Biofuels - Biofuels - Biofuel …


We give an overview of the major types of biofuels available

Huber says the paper’s findings will keep UW–Madison at the forefront as biofuels researchers continue to pursue better processes that industry partners can then scale up.

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“Imagine if the US military developed a weapon that could threaten millions around the world with hunger, accelerate global warming, incite widespread instability and revolution, provide our competitors and enemies with cheaper energy, and reduce America’s economy to a permanent state of recession,” said Kiefer in the report. “What would be the sense and the morality of employing such a weapon? We are already building that weapon—it is our biofuels program. For the sake of our national energy strategy and global security, we must face the sober facts and reject biofuels while advocating an overall national energy strategy compatible with the laws of chemistry, physics, biology, and economics.”

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In its , the DOE points out that Kiefer’s paper does not include any analysis of critical issues of energy systems, including petroleum systems and biofuel systems. Rather, the DOE calls his paper a summary of literature. “Furthermore, the summary of biofuel literatures in this paper has been tailored with literatures with negative points of views and results for biofuels. There are equally important, if not more important, literatures with credible analyses and objective results of biofuels, which were either overlooked or ignored by the author,” said the DOE.

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Second generation biofuels are “greener” in that they are made from sustainable feedstock. In this use, the term sustainable is defined by the availability of the feedstock, the impact of its use on greenhouse gas emissions, its impact on biodiversity, and its impact on land use (water, food supply, etc.). At this point, most second generation fuels are underdevelopment and not widely available for use.

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The DOE also stressed that Kiefer confused present purchase prices for certain fuels for fleet testing with the long-term goals of government research and development investment. “The present purchase prices reflect current production at very limited scale and limited technology advancement,” said the DOE in its response. “Government R&D investments are intended to overcome key technology barriers so that in the long term biofuels can become vital national energy options. If one uses the status quo to decide what society should or should not do, many technology innovations and civilization advancements would not have occurred.”

The Long-Term Prospects of Biofuels in the EU-15 …

Huber says the paper’s findings will keep UW–Madison at the forefront as biofuels researchers continue to pursue better processes that industry partners can then scale up.

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The objective of this paper is to present basic data on biofuels production (biofuels being here intended in the sense of liquid biofuels for transport) in tropical countries, to provide a preliminary discussion of some elements related to the agro-environmental impact of biofuels development in tropical countries and to identify possible areas where more research is needed. Specific attention is paid to the situation in Brazil and Malaysia, considered at short and mid term as the major biofuels exporters to the European Union (EU) and to the direct and indirect effects of EU biofuels policies on environment in the tropics.

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