The length of your Abstract should be kept to about 200-300 words maximum (a typical standard length for journals.) Limit your statements concerning each segment of the paper (i.e.
In the mouse behavior paper, for example, you would begin the Introduction at the level of mating behavior in general, then quickly focus to mouse mating behaviors and then hormonal regulation of behavior.
The Convention on Biological Diversity, which is also known as Biodiversity Convention, is said to be the international treaty adopted in June 2002 in Rio de Janeiro. The Convention seeks to accomplish the series of tasks and has three primary goals. The first one is the conservation of biological diversity, second- sustainable utilization of its components and finally, the last goal is to share fairly and equitably the benefits arising from genetic resources. In general terms, the purpose of the Convention is the development of the national conservation strategies and strategies for sustainable use of biological diversity. It is referred to as the principal document on regarding the sustainable development. The Convention was open to the signature on June 5, 1992, in Rio de Janeiro at the Earth Summit and entered into force on December 29, 1993.
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After some decades of such iterations, some epistemologists began todoubt that progress was being made. In her 1994 paper, “TheInescapability of Gettier Problems”, Linda Zagzebski suggestedthat no analysis sufficiently similar to the JTB analysis could everavoid the problems highlighted by Gettier’s cases. Moreprecisely, Zagzebski argued, any analysans of the form JTB+,where is a condition or list of conditions logicallyindependent from justification, truth, and belief, would besusceptible to Gettier-style counterexamples. She offered what was ineffect a recipe for constructing Gettier cases:
Gettier’s paper launched a flurry of philosophical activity byepistemologists attempting to revise the JTB theory, usually by addingone or more conditions, to close the gap between knowledge andjustified true belief. We have seen already how several of theseattempts failed. When intuitive counterexamples were proposed to eachtheory, epistemologists often responded by amending their theories,complicating the existing conditions or adding new ones. Much of thisdialectic is chronicled thoroughly by Shope 1983, to which theinterested reader is directed.
Because safety is understood only in terms of knowledge, safety sounderstood cannot serve in an analysis of knowledge. Nor is itWilliamson’s intent that it should do so; as we will see below,Williamson rejects the project of analyzing knowledge. This is ofcourse consistent with claiming that safety is a necessary conditionon knowledge in the straightforward sense that the latter entails theformer.
Not all further clarifications of a safety condition will be suitablefor the use of the latter in an analysis of knowledge. In particular,if the respect of similarity that is relevant for safety is itselfexplicated in terms of knowledge, then an analysis of knowledge whichmade reference to safety would be in this respect circular. This, forinstance, is how Timothy Williamson characterizes safety. He writes,in response to a challenge by Alvin Goldman:
Cases like these, in which justified true belief seems in someimportant sense disconnected from the fact, were made famous in EdmondGettier’s 1963 paper, “Is Justified True BeliefKnowledge?”. Gettier presented two cases in which a true beliefis inferred from a justified false belief. He observed that,intuitively, such beliefs cannot be knowledge; it is merely lucky thatthey are true.
For example, in a paper reporting on an experiment involving dosing mice with the sex hormone estrogen and watching for a certain kind of courtship behavior,
The virtue-theoretic approach to knowledge is in some respects similarto the safety and anti-luck approaches. Indeed, Ernest Sosa, one ofthe most prominent authors of the virtue-theoretic approach, developedit from his previous work on safety. The virtue approach treatsknowledge as a particularly successful or valuable form of belief, andexplicates what it is to be knowledge in such terms. Like theanti-luck theory, a virtue-theoretic theory leaves behind the JTB+project of identifying knowledge with a truth-functional combinationof independent epistemic properties; knowledge, according to thisapproach, requires a certain non-logical relationship between beliefand truth.