A remark for readers from the U.S.:
The 24h time notation specified here has already beenthe de-facto standard all over the world in written language fordecades.
In order to maintain a clear distinction between terms referring to objects, concepts, and terms, we adopt hereinafter a notational convention from ISO standards, e.g., [ISO 704:2009]. A term, and more generally a linguistic expression, referring to:
Standard musical notation, using the five-line, four-space staff is the form most frequently employed to embody musical works. Precision equal to that offered by conventional notation is not required, although the deposit should constitute as precise a representation of the work as possible. Any graphic representat1on of pitch, rhythm, or both, suffices as long as the notation is capable of being performed. Examples: graphically drawn hand signals, fret notation, staves with more or fewer lines than the conventional staff, and "new music," combining graphic art with music notation.
Some might not appreciate the true essence of cooperative learning, a feature employed in differentiating instruction. Learners are responsible for not just their own learning, but the learning of others. Shared learning leads to success for all, as each member of a learning group has a specific role to play in reaching a common goal. Successful groups include positive interdependence--if one fails, the entire group is affected. There is both individual and group accountability; although some work might be completed individually, some must be accomplished by group interactions. Typicalinclude think-pair-share, the three-step interview, the jigsaw, and numbered heads. might include focused listing to brainstorm or examine concepts and descriptions, structured problem solving, one-minute papers, paired annotations, guided reciprocal peer questioning, and send-a-problem.
See 17 U.S.C. 205 and . In addition, the Office will not accept an application for the dual purpose of registering a claim and recording a document. See below. 603 Elements required for basic registration. The elements required or basic registrant on are 1) a completed application form; 2) the statutory fee; and 3) the appropriate deposit. See , and . These three elements should be sent to the Copyright Office in the same package. In general, if these elements are not sent together, the Office will not begin the registration process. Instead it will return the partial submission and will send the applicant instructions on how to apply for copyright registration. Published deposits received without an accompanying application and either a fee or a deposit account notation, will be forwarded to the appropriate department of the Library of Congress for use or disposal. Such deposits will not thereafter be available for registration. See 37 C.F.R. 202.19(l). The Copyright Office prescribes five basic registration forms: Form SE for serials, Form TX for other nondramatic literary works, Form PA for works of the performing arts (musical works, dramatic works, choreographic works, pantomimes, motion pictures, and other audiovisual works), Form SR for sound recordings, and Form VA for works of the visual arts (pictorial, graphic, and sculptural works). In general, the application should be submitted in the class most appropriate to the type of authorship that predominates in the work being registered. See . In most cases, there is ample space on the principal application form for all the necessary information. Where there is not, the applicant should use an official con tinuation sheet provided by the Copyright Office. If the required information is given only on the continuation sheet, the Copyright Office may add it to the principal applica tion (if the application has been signed) and file the continuation sheet, or it may use the continuation sheet with the principal application. If the continuation sheet con tains solely duplicate material, the Copy right Office will use only the principal application in making registration. In such cases, the continuation sheet may be dis carded. When the Copyright Office determines that the material deposited consti tutes copyrightable subject matter and that the other legal and formal requirements of the copyright law have been met, it will register the claim and send to the applicant a certificate of registration under the seal of the Copyright Office. See 17 U.S.C. 410(a). Generally, were the registration material is unacceptable or subject to question, the Copyright Office will communicate with the applicant. See . In general, the Office will not question the accuracy of a statement made on an application. However, the Copyright Office will communicate with the applicant where the material is subject to question, as for example, where the application is ambiguous, substantially incomplete, in conflict with other infor mation in the registration material, or with information of which the Copyright Office may take administrative notice, or indicates misunderstanding of registration requirements. See also , . A variance exists when contradictory information is present in the registration materials. Where the variance is immaterial, the Copyright Office will disregard it.Example:The application names John Thomas James as author. The phonorecords deposited for registration give the author's name, as Jon T. Thomas. The Copyright Office will accept the application. Where the variance is not immaterial but can be resolved for the purposes of registration, the Copyright Office will annotate the application to show the varying information. See below.Examples:1) The title of the work on the phonorecord deposited for registration is "The Quick Brown Fox. II The application gives the title as "The Brown Quick Fox." The Copyright Office will annotate the application to reflect the title appearing on the phonorecords. 2) The title on the copies is "On Nuclear Rearmament"; the application gives the title as, "No Nuclear Rearmament." The Copyright Office will annotate the application to reflect the title appearing on the copies. Where the variance is substantial, the Copyright Office will communicate with the appli cant.Example: The application gives the name of the author as "Mary Smith"; the name of the author on the copy is "Jane Amber." In the absence of infor mation that one of the names is a pseudonym or that the work was made for hire, the Copyright Office will ask the applicant to explain the variance in the author's name. An anno tation is a statement added to the applica tion by the Copyright Office to amplify the record of facts affecting the copyright claim. Specifically, annotations are made for the following purposes:1) To reflect certain variances. as noted at above.2) To add missing information. for example. from the deposit. a continuation sheet or a rider to the application. a previous application. a letter from the applicant. a telephone conversation. or a personal interview.3) To add comments to the application. for example. to note an antedated copyright notice. to note overlapping claims. to note references by applicant to previous correspondence as "previous registration." to note references to riders or documents. or to note grants of special relief.4) Where authorized by applicant or where otherwise appropriate. to correct or Qt delete errors on the application. Annotations should be typewritten or stamped in the space marked "For Copyright Office Use Only." and should include the source of the information. Amendments should be keyed by asterisks to numbered spaces on the application. In general. after the Copyright Office has communicated with the applicant about an error or question. the applicant must respond within a reasonable time. or the file will be closed. Once the file has been closed. the applicant must submit a new application. deposit. and filing fee before the Office can reconsider registration. " The Copyright Of ice will register a claim even though there is a reasonable doubt about the ultimate action which might be taken under the same circumstances by an appropriate court with respect to whether (1) the mate rial deposited for registration constitutes copyrightable subject matter or (2) the other legal and formal requirements of the statute have been met. See . When registration is made under the rule of doubt, the Copyright Office may send a letter to the applicant cautioning that the claim may not be valid and stating the reason; and such a letter may warn, where appropriate, that the problem may exist for future works and point out how it can be avoided. Notwithstanding the expected treatment accorded special handling cases, these cases receive full examination by the Copyright Office. In any case in which the Register of Copyrights determines that, in accordance with the copyright law, the material deposited does not constitute copyrightable' subject matter or that the claim is invalid for any other reason, the Copyright Office will refuse registration and will notify the applicant in writing of the reasons for such refusal. See 17 U.S.C. 410(b), and . Unregistrable material includes the following:a) Published works ineligible because of the nationality of the author or place of first publication. See 17 U.S.C. 104(b). .b) Works not fixed in a tangible medium of expression; see .c) Sound recordings fixed before February 15. 1972. See 17 U.S.C. 301 (c). and .d) Works that are not "original works of authorship." See 17 U.S.C. 102(a). and .e) Works whose term of copyright has expired.f) Works of the United States Government. See 17 U.S.C. 101 and 105.g) Certain works that unlawfully employ preexisting copyrighted material. See 17 U. S .C. 1 03 (a).h) Musical arrangements made under a compulsory license without the express consent of the copyright owner of the preexisting work. See 17 U.S.C. 115.i) Derivative works made under 17 U.S.C. 112(e) without the express permission of the copyright owner of the preexisting works employed in the transmission pro gram. See 17 U.S.C. 112(e). Where the claim is invalid because certain other legal requirements have not been met, the Copyright Office will refuse registration. Examples include:1 ) A work that went into the public domain before 1978, as determined by the law of 1909, as amended. See of the Transitional and Supplementary Provisions of the current Act and Compendium I. 2) In certain cases, works published under the current act without the required notice which were not registered within five years after such publication. See 17 U.S.C. 405(a), and .
Many conflicting statements have been made regarding the history and development of music writing, and the student who is seeking light on this subject is often at a loss to determine what actually did happen in the rise of our modern system of writing music. We have one writer for example asserting that staff notation was begun by drawing a single red line across the page, this line representing the pitch (fourth line, bass staff), the (the predecessors of our modern ) standing either for this pitch , or for a higher or lower pitch, according to their position the line, or or it. "Another line," continues this writer, "this time of yellow color, was soon added above the red one, and this line was to represent c' (middle C). Soon the colors of these lines were omitted and the F and C were placed at the beginning of each of them. From this arose our F and C clefs, which preceded the G clef by some centuries."
The is one which proceeds always by half-steps. Its intervals are therefore always equal no matter with what tone it begins. Since, however, we have (from the standpoint of the piano keyboard) five pairs of tones which are enharmonically the same, it may readily be seen that the chromatic scale might be notated in all sorts of fashions, and this is in fact the real status of the matter, there being no one method uniformly agreed upon by composers.
Conceptually, the learner might have missed a connection to prior learning on fractions, or the link was not made and reinforced in instruction. Writing the problem in its equivalent fraction form, using knowledge of converting decimals to fractions and vice versa, and decimal notation and place value might eventually have helped the learner to understand the short cut presented in the algorithm.
It will be noted that all three writers agree that a certain thing happened, but as in the case of the four Gospels in the New Testament, not all the writers agree on details and it is difficult to determine which account is most nearly accurate in detail as well as in general statement. Communication was much slower a thousand years ago than now and ideas about new methods of doing things did not spread rapidly, consequently it is entirely possible that various men or groups of men in various places worked out a system of notation differing somewhat in details of origin and development but alike in final result. The point is that the development of musical knowledge (rise of part-writing, increased interest in instrumental music, etc.), demanded a more exact system of notation than had previously existed, just as the development of science in the nineteenth century necessitated a more accurate scientific nomenclature, and in both cases the need gave rise to the result as we have it to-day.
An exception exists under the Standard Reference Data Act (15 U.S.C. 290e) for any standard reference data that the Secretary of Commerce prepares or makes available under the Act. Claims registered under this Act should be annotated to read as follows: "Claim registered under the Standard Reference Data Act, P.L. 90-396 (15 U.S.C. 290e)."
Other systems of notation have been invented from time to time in the course of the last two or three centuries, but in most cases they have died with their inventors, and in no case has any such system been accepted with anything even approaching unanimity. The tonic-sol-fa system is used quite extensively in England for vocal music, but has gained little ground anywhere else and the chances are that the present system of notation, with possibly slight additions and modifications, will remain the standard notation for some time to come in spite of the attacks that are periodically made upon it on the ground of cumbersomeness, difficulty in teaching children, etc. The main characteristics of staff notation may be summed up as follows: