As examples, I offer two sets of section headings taken from essays. The first is from Dr. Craig Bohren’s "Understanding Colors in Nature" (1), which appeared in a 1990 edition of Earth & Mineral Sciences; the second is from a student’s paper on the supply and demand of asbestos.
Just by considering the section headings in the above examples, we can begin to see the fundamental structures and directions of the essays, because both sets of headings break the paper topic into its natural parts and suggest some sort of a movement forward through a topic. Note how these headings—as all section headings should—tell us the story of the paper and are worded just as carefully as any title should be.
I’m almost certain that there is no professor who opts to have a coverless term paper. Term papers are formal academic papers that strictly follow writing rules and guidelines. Most often than not, university and college professors are very meticulous with the details of your academic paper, such that they have recommendations on the type of font and font size to use.
Basic GuidelinesThe purpose of the term paper in ECS 15 is for you to learn how to do effective research on a subject and then write it up clearly, showing where you got your information.
A student has to start every chapter of the text from a new page. The Abstract is a section which follows the front page and its aim is to provide the professor with information about research, the relevance of topic, the methodology which would be used in the paper, etc. A student should remember to prepare a brief text which would be no more than 250 words and the font size should be no more than 12. The Keywords chapter follows the Abstract and it provides a reader with the list of terms and expressions on the topic making the term paper easy for research in the database of educational institution. One should think about the selection of keywords when a term paper is written.
As examples of how creative an introduction can be, here are the opening lines from a geography paper and a paper on optics, both of which use narrative technique to arouse our interest. Note how the first excerpt uses an "I" narrator comfortably while the second excerpt does not use "I" even though the writer is clearly reflective about the subject matter. The first excerpt is from a paper on the generic nature of America’s highway exit ramp services; the second is from a paper on shape constancy.
PEPRA was enacted with a stated goal: to create a more sustainable pension system by reducing employer pension liability and increasing employee contributions toward their pension benefits. PEPRA only accomplishes this goal in the distant future – since the majority of the changes apply only to employees who become retirement system members on or after January 1, 2013. For those public employers still struggling with significant unfunded liabilities for current members, AB 340 does little to address the more immediate needs for a reduction in pension liability, and in some areas actually increases liabilities for most agencies modestly. And most of the Act’s provisions that do provide an opportunity to reduce an employer’s share of an unfunded liability can be realized only by agreement with employee organizations. Because current costs are so heavily driven by unfunded liabilities and the Act does little to help with current employees, the future savings due to the legislation will do little to drive down normal cost or unfunded liability in the next decade.
If you include the author's name(s) in the text of a sentence in the paper, you may omit their names from the parentheses as follows: "Austin (1996) includes valuable references to ...." or "The examples given by Li and Crane (1993) on web addresses ...".
Of course, papers should always be typed, double-spaced on 8-1/2 x 11 paper on one side of the page only, and letter-quality print or better is always expected. Often you are expected to supply a cover sheet giving the date, your name, the title of the paper, the class, and the professor’s name. Tables and figures should be numbered consecutively throughout the text, and if there are a good number of them, then separate lists of tables and figures at the beginning of the paper may be expected. Tables and figures should always have descriptive captions, and if they come directly from sources, the sources must be specifically credited in the captions with the same citation style that you use throughout the paper.
Never simply label the middle bulk of the paper as "Body" and then lump a bunch of information into one big section. Instead, organize the body of your paper into sections by using an overarching principle that supports your thesis, even if that simply means presenting four different methods for solving some problem one method at a time. Normally you are allowed and encouraged to use section headings to help both yourself and the reader follow the flow of the paper. Always word your section headings clearly, and do not stray from the subject that you have identified within a section.
When you are first faced with the task of writing a long essay or term paper it can be intimidating, but you make your job and the reader’s job much easier by following some basic rules of thumb. Of course, if your professors offer you any specific guidelines about writing be sure to follow those first. Otherwise, incorporate the advice that follows into your papers wherever appropriate.
In fact, the writer who will be assigned to handle your term paper requirements will most likely be a professional of that subject or field, having gained personal know how on the topic of your choice. Moreover, our writers are highly qualified, having earned their respective PhDs and master’s degree.