The Convention on Biological Diversity, which is also known as Biodiversity Convention, is said to be the international treaty adopted in June 2002 in Rio de Janeiro. The Convention seeks to accomplish the series of tasks and has three primary goals. The first one is the conservation of biological diversity, second- sustainable utilization of its components and finally, the last goal is to share fairly and equitably the benefits arising from genetic resources. In general terms, the purpose of the Convention is the development of the national conservation strategies and strategies for sustainable use of biological diversity. It is referred to as the principal document on regarding the sustainable development. The Convention was open to the signature on June 5, 1992, in Rio de Janeiro at the Earth Summit and entered into force on December 29, 1993.
Facial tissue: The class of soft, absorbent papers in the sanitary tissue group. Originally used for removal of creams, oil, and so on, from the skin, it is now used in large volume for packaged facial tissue, toilet paper, paper napkins, professional towels, industrial wipes, and for hospital items. Most facial tissue is made of bleached sulfite or sulfate pulp, sometimes mixed with bleached and mechanical pulp, on a single-cylinder or fourdrinier machine. Desirable characteristics are softness, strength, and freedom from lint.
Exposure assessment. Particle composition concentrations at the baseline residential addresses of study participants were estimated by land use regression models following a standardized procedure described elsewhere (; ; ). Measurements of PM2.5 and PM10 were performed at 20 sites in each of the study areas. Within each study area, each of the 20 sites was measured during three 2-week periods (during summer, winter, and an intermediate season) within 1 year. The total measurement period over all study areas was between October 2008 and May 2011. PM filters were weighed before and after each measurement centrally at IRAS, Utrecht University, and were then sent to Cooper Environmental Services (Portland, OR, USA) to detect elements. All filters were analyzed for elemental composition using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) (). The three 2-week measurements were averaged, adjusting for temporal trends using data from a background monitoring site with continuous data (; ; ).
Statistical analyses. Cohort-specific analyses. Cox proportional hazards models were used for the cohort specific analyses following the analysis protocol in the ESCAPE study (). Age was used as the time scale because of evidence of better adjustment for potential confounding by age (). Censoring occurred at the time of death for non-natural causes, emigration, loss to follow-up for other reasons, or at end of follow-up, whichever came first. Air pollution exposure was analyzed as a linear time-invariant variable. Potential confounders were available from questionnaires at baseline. We specified three confounder models with increasing levels of adjustment a priori. Confounder models were selected based on previous cohort studies of air pollution and mortality and availability of data in a majority of the cohorts. The specific variables included as model covariates are listed for each cohort in Supplemental Material Tables S10–S28. Model 1 included only age (time axis), sex, and calendar time [year(s) of enrollment, continuous for baseline periods of ≤ 5 years]. Model 2 added the following individual-level variables (as available for the individual cohorts): smoking status (never/former/current), smoking intensity, smoking duration, environmental tobacco smoke, fruit intake, vegetables intake, alcohol consumption (linear and squared term), body mass index (BMI; linear and squared term), educational level (low, medium, high), occupational class (white/blue collar classification), employment status, and marital status. Model 3 added area-level socioeconomic status (SES) variables, including mean income, percentage of people with a low income, unemployment rate, and educational level or deprivation index, which were defined for most of the cohorts at the neighborhood or municipality level (see Supplemental Material, Tables S10–S28, for details).
In the framework of the multicenter ESCAPE (European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects) and TRANSPHORM (Transport related Air Pollution and Health impacts–Integrated Methodologies for Assessing Particulate Matter) projects, we added standardized exposure assessment for air pollution to mortality data from 19 ongoing cohort studies across Europe. Associations of particle mass (PM2.5, PM10, PMcoarse, and PM2.5 absorbance) and nitrogen oxides (NO2 and NOx) with natural-cause mortality in the same cohorts have been reported previously (). We found a statistically significant elevated hazard ratio for PM2.5 of 1.07 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02, 1.13] per 5 μg/m3. In this paper we report associations with particle elemental composition in 19 European cohorts to assess whether specific components are associated with natural-cause mortality. A second aim was to assess whether the previously reported association with PM2.5 mass was explained by specific elements. Associations of particle composition and cardiovascular mortality have been published separately ().
This is a really good paper, so now lets trash it. Seriously, I though it would be helpful for you if you could see a critique of this paper so that you could more easily see some of the things that were done right and that were done wrong.
Remember, there is no one correct way to say anything. There is no one correct way to order or word your paper. There are, however, ways that are clearly wrong. And, in most cases, there is only one way to spell a given word! Most of you have probably written less than a handful of term papers. Writing clearly and concisely is more difficult than you may think. Remember not to feel too bad if a fellow student, Writing Fellow, or professor has a large number of "negative" comments on a paper you think of as being nearly perfect. It's like playing music. If you've never spent much time listening to the symphony, not only will you have a tough time playing classical music well, you probably will have a hard time even if you sound well. Since the purpose of your paper is to convey information to other people, other people's opinions of your work matter! Have other's read your paper, and listen to their comments. Accepting criticism is not easy, but it's the only way to learn to write.
Citation: Beelen R, Hoek G, Raaschou-Nielsen O, Stafoggia M, Andersen ZJ, Weinmayr G, Hoffmann B, Wolf K, Samoli E, Fischer PH, Nieuwenhuijsen MJ, Xun WW, Katsouyanni K, Dimakopoulou K, Marcon A, Vartiainen E, Lanki T, Yli-Tuomi T, Oftedal B, Schwarze PE, Nafstad P, De Faire U, Pedersen NL, Östenson C-G, Fratiglioni L, Penell J, Korek M, Pershagen G, Eriksen KT, Overvad K, Sørensen M, Eeftens M, Peeters PH, Meliefste K, Wang M, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, Sugiri D, Krämer U, Heinrich J, de Hoogh K, Key T, Peters A, Hampel R, Concin H, Nagel G, Jaensch A, Ineichen A, Tsai MY, Schaffner E, Probst-Hensch NM, Schindler C, Ragettli MS, Vilier A, Clavel-Chapelon F, Declercq C, Ricceri F, Sacerdote C, Galassi C, Migliore E, Ranzi A, Cesaroni G, Badaloni C, Forastiere F, Katsoulis M, Trichopoulou A, Keuken M, Jedynska A, Kooter IM, Kukkonen J, Sokhi RS, Vineis P, Brunekreef B. 2015. Natural-cause mortality and long-term exposure to particle components: an analysis of 19 European cohorts within the Multi-Center ESCAPE Project. Environ Health Perspect 123:525–533;
These are some of the better papers that have been handed in in past semesters. Note, however, that these papers are far from perfect. I'm really hoping that you will provide me with some better examples this semester! Also note that the style and formatting of these papers don't conform to the standards we are using this semester.
For example, in a paper reporting on an experiment involving dosing mice with the sex hormone estrogen and watching for a certain kind of courtship behavior,
The length of your Abstract should be kept to about 200-300 words maximum (a typical standard length for journals.) Limit your statements concerning each segment of the paper (i.e.