This common manifestation of SOA has led some microservice advocates to reject the SOA label entirely, although others consider microservices to be one form of SOA , perhaps . Either way, the fact that SOA means such different things means it's valuable to have a term that more crisply defines this architectural style.
A specific in vitro diagnostic instrument contained approximately 175,000lines of source code and approximately 1,600 software requirements that neededto be traced. While the division also has an automated traceability system(ATS) that allowed them to automate many of the tasks, it was the process andnot the tool that led to their success. The main purpose of the traceabilityprogram is to identify links and determine that the links are complete andaccurate. The traceability analysis consists of 4 aspects: forward requirementsanalysis, reverse requirements trace, forward test analysis, and reverse testtrace. These steps are used to trace each software requirement through itsdesign elements and test traces. The ATS can be used to design documentationmatrices and test matrices that is used to perform the different analysesrequired. The ATS is also able to give feedback about the design componentsthat are not yet implemented during the life cycle. In the test phase, the ATSgives input to what requirements are covered by the test cases. [Watkins94]
The associations between ambient PM2.5 air pollution and IHD mortality in our study cohort are consistent with previous reports, though few studies have estimated associations with long-term PM2.5 elemental constituents and/or source-specific PM2.5 mass components. A previous cross-sectional study of long-term PM2.5 sources and all-cause mortality rates in the United States during 1980 () similarly reported mortality associations with metropolitan area-wide sulfates and coal combustion-related particle exposures. Previous analyses of the ACS CPS-II cohort (; , , ) and the Harvard Six Cities Study cohort () also showed associations between sulfates and both all-cause and cardiopulmonary mortality. Long-term exposures to EC and S were significantly associated with total mortality in a previous analysis of the ACS CPS-II cohort (). A meta-analysis of data from 19 European cohorts indicated that long-term exposure to PM2.5 sulfur was associated with natural-cause mortality, and that this association was robust to adjustment for other pollutants and PM2.5 mass (). Sulfate alone, as discussed by , is an unlikely causal factor for mortality or morbidity from a toxicological perspective, so it may be a contributor to the toxicity of the PM2.5 mixture or serve as a marker for a certain type or source of particulate pollution that needs identification. A study of deaths among U.S. veterans () employed data from the U.S. EPA CSN fine particle speciation network, finding mortality associations with nitrates, EC, Ni, V, and traffic density. PM2.5 constituents derived from fossil fuel combustion and constituents of crustal origin were more strongly associated than other PM2.5 constituents with mortality in a population of 45,000 California teachers (). A follow-up of this cohort () found statistically significant (p 2.5 mass, nitrate, EC, copper, and secondary organics and the sources gas- and diesel-fueled vehicles, meat cooking, and high-sulfur fuel combustion in California. However, individual trace element metals were not associated with CVD mortality in a meta-analysis of 19 European cohorts (). Collectively, these past studies are largely consistent with a finding that the PM2.5 association with mortality varies with its elemental composition, but most past studies have not looked at the PM2.5 constituent issue from a collective source-specific PM2.5 component perspective, which is more readily translatable into air quality policy.
We tested whether effect estimates differed for cohorts for which the land use regression model cross-validation explained variance was smaller or larger than 50% by computing the chi-square test of heterogeneity. In addition, we tested whether effect estimates differed by region of Europe (North: Sweden, Norway, Finland, Denmark; West and Middle: United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Germany, France, Austria, and Switzerland; South: Italy and Greece). We did not perform effect modification analyses for individual-level variables because this paper focuses on differences in effect estimates related to elemental composition. Only sex was an effect modifier for the association between PM2.5 and natural mortality in the same cohorts ().
Statistical analyses. Cohort-specific analyses. Cox proportional hazards models were used for the cohort specific analyses following the analysis protocol in the ESCAPE study (). Age was used as the time scale because of evidence of better adjustment for potential confounding by age (). Censoring occurred at the time of death for non-natural causes, emigration, loss to follow-up for other reasons, or at end of follow-up, whichever came first. Air pollution exposure was analyzed as a linear time-invariant variable. Potential confounders were available from questionnaires at baseline. We specified three confounder models with increasing levels of adjustment a priori. Confounder models were selected based on previous cohort studies of air pollution and mortality and availability of data in a majority of the cohorts. The specific variables included as model covariates are listed for each cohort in Supplemental Material Tables S10–S28. Model 1 included only age (time axis), sex, and calendar time [year(s) of enrollment, continuous for baseline periods of ≤ 5 years]. Model 2 added the following individual-level variables (as available for the individual cohorts): smoking status (never/former/current), smoking intensity, smoking duration, environmental tobacco smoke, fruit intake, vegetables intake, alcohol consumption (linear and squared term), body mass index (BMI; linear and squared term), educational level (low, medium, high), occupational class (white/blue collar classification), employment status, and marital status. Model 3 added area-level socioeconomic status (SES) variables, including mean income, percentage of people with a low income, unemployment rate, and educational level or deprivation index, which were defined for most of the cohorts at the neighborhood or municipality level (see Supplemental Material, Tables S10–S28, for details).
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1978 - VA Shiva Ayyadurai develops EMAIL, the first email system at UMDNJ. Email is the electronic version of the interoffice inter-organizational mail system that offers doctors at UMDNJ the ability to manage mail electronically as they did with their paper-based mail system.
1979 - VA Shiva Ayyadurai develops administrative system for email maintenance and management.
1980 - VA Shiva Ayyadurai develops EMAIL User's Manual.
1981 - Westinghouse Science Talent Search Award committee recognizes VA Shiva Ayyadurai with Honors Award for EMAIL, first email system that is user-friendly, network-wide, high-reliability features, defining .
1982 - US Copyright Office issues , and another to VA Shiva Ayyadurai
1982 - Jon Postel develops SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)
1983 - Jon Postel, Paul Mockapetris, and Craig Partridge to support the email addressing space, create domain suffixes .edu, .gov, .com, .mil, .org, .net, & .int.
1985 - Development of "offline readers." Offline readers allowed email users to store their email on their own personal computers, and then read it and prepare replies without actually being connected to the network - sort of like Microsoft Outlook can do today.
1988 - Eudora developed by Steve Dorner.
1988 - Vinton Cerf arranges for the connection of MCI Mail to the NSFNET through the Corporation for the National Research Initiative (CNRI) for "experimental use", providing the first sanctioned commercial use of the Internet.
1989 - The CompuServe mail system also connected to the NSFNET, through the Ohio State University network.
1989 - MCI offers the connection of MCI Mail. It is initially provided to NSFNET through the Corporation for the National Research Initiative as an experiment. This offers the first commercial use of the Internet.
1990 - CompuServe offers its email, connected to the NSFNET, through the Ohio State University network.
1991 - Lotus Notes is released.
1993 - America On-line and Delphi offers global Internet Mail. Their solution makes it easy for an ordinary citizen to get an email account and use an email system.
1996 - Microsoft Internet Mail and News, news client and ancestor of Outlook Express, version 1.0 is released following the Internet Explorer 3 release.
1997 - Microsoft Internet Mail and News is renamed as Outlook Express and bundled with Internet Explorer 4.
1999 - Blackberry is released.
2003 - CAN-SPAM Act is signed into law by George W. Bush.
2007 - Gmail is released.
2009 - iPhone makes email even more easily accessible.
2011 - Associated Press Stylebook declares the use of EMAIL without “-” as a standard unaware of US Copyright for EMAIL from 1978.
"Microservices" - yet another new term on the crowded streets of software architecture. Although our natural inclination is to pass such things by with a contemptuous glance, this bit of terminology describes a style of software systems that we are finding more and more appealing. We've seen many projects use this style in the last few years, and results so far have been positive, so much so that for many of our colleagues this is becoming the default style for building enterprise applications. Sadly, however, there's not much information that outlines what the microservice style is and how to do it.
RBI relaxes norms for refinancing long term project loans Rediff Project finance is the long term financing of infrastructure and industrial projects based upon the projected cash flows of the project rather than the