hate, bad), more perspective, careful to check that information is conveyed correctly, straight to the point, formal, few negations, few swear words, few references to friends, few disfluencies or filler words, many insight words, not impulsive.
Conscientiousness was associated with increased volume in the lateral prefrontal cortex, a region involved in planning and the voluntary control of behavior.
Therefore, the terms are used in this article as they were in the original studies cited.) drinkers rated the alcohol advertisements as more effective, identified with their portrayals more, and rated those portrayals as more desirable compared with others.
Low Openness/Intellect is associated with narrow-mindedness, unimaginativeness and ignorance.
Narrow-minded, conservative, ignorant, simple.
Few positive emotion words, low meaning elaboration, less perspective, less politeness, few positive emotion words, many self-references, simple sentence construction, many causation words (e.g.
These other strategies are those that (1) model appropriate behavior (e.g., giving up car keys after drinking), (2) employ positive appeals (e.g., depicting enjoyable social situations without drinking), (3) evoke alcohol-related fear (e.g., of accidental death), and (4) evoke empathy (e.g., for victims of drunk drivers).
(This could be thought of as high threat sensitivity or low stress tolerance.)
, depressed, self-conscious, oversensitive, vulnerable, neurotic.
Problem talk, dissatisfaction, high verbal productivity, many repetitions, polarised content, stressed, many self-references, few short silent pauses, many long silent pauses, few tentative words, more aquiescence, many self references, exaggeration, frustration, high concreteness.
Negative Emotion was associated with increased volume of brain regions associated with threat, punishment, and negative emotions.
Independent of cultural context, it is clear that ethanol produces dose-related changes in central nervous system (CNS) functioning which in turn affect basic physiological processes. In layman’s terms, after ingestion of moderate to high doses of alcohol: reaction times are generally slower; short-term and intermediate memory may be affected; performance on problem solving tasks decreases and muscle control, dexterity and eye-hand co-ordination may be impaired.
While the free essays can give you inspiration for writing, they cannot be used 'as is' because they will not meet your assignment's requirements. If you are in a time crunch, then you need a custom written term paper on your subject (alcohol aggression)
Here you can hire an independent writer/researcher to custom write you an authentic essay to your specifications that will pass any plagiarism test (e.g. Turnitin). Waste no more time!
This necessitates the use of cross-cultural methods which allow measurement of the extent of variation attributable to sociocultural influences. For alcohol to be seen as a causal variable, in any meaningful sense, with regard to emotional states and behaviour, we would expect it to produce an invariant pattern of responses across all cultures. If , however, alcohol evokes only diffuse psychological states which have no direct prescriptions for behaviour, then we would expect to see responses varying according to different social and cultural mores. In other words, beyond consistency in the straightforward physiological, psycho-motor and cognitive effects outlined above, we would expect high levels of emotional and behavioural variance around the world following drinking. Such variance would not mean that alcohol plays no role at all in the generation of, say, promiscuous or aggressive behaviour; rather, it would indicate a strong alcohol-culture interaction, with cultural variables modifying, directing or even overriding the physiological and psychological effects of alcohol.
The ‘natural experiment’ of cross-cultural study finds levels of variance which rule out any direct causal effects of alcohol on behaviour. We have already noted that in some societies drunken aggression and belligerence are commonplace, while in others the same doses of ethanol result in quite opposite behaviour, characterised by calmness, passivity and good humour. Even within a single culture, the diversity of behavioural effects is often striking: the Aztec name for their alcoholic beverage was or ‘four hundred rabbits’, in recognition of its almost infinite variety of effects on those who drank it (Marshall, 1983).
An ethnographer’s account of a drunken event at which, for example, aggressive or sexually promiscuous behaviour was exhibited does not indicate that these behaviours are invariably, or even typically, associated with drinking in the society concerned. Nor can we draw any such general conclusions from ‘isolated’ accounts of drunken occasions at which no aggressive or promiscuous behaviours were evident. To bring MacAndrew and Edgerton’s work up to date - with any degree of scientific rigour - would therefore require more than a review of the more recent anthropological literature.
The wide variations in responses to alcohol across cultures and within cultures led MacAndrew and Edgerton not only to reject simplistic pharmacological disinhibition models, but to consider the specific aspects of culture which lead to the of alcohol-related behaviour. The notion that the behavioural outcomes of drinking are determined by cultural norms had already been proposed in a seminal paper by Mandelbaum (1965):
The anthropological literature shows how central aspects of culture can radically shape the ways in which people learn to drink and the patterns of behaviour which are associated with alcohol consumption. It is also clear that the process of ‘acculturation’, whether induced by colonial domination, tourism or economic and cultural ‘convergence’ such as that currently occurring in parts of Europe, can introduce styles of drinking with which previously existing cultural frameworks are unable to cope (Cottino, 1995; Gamella, 1995; Heath, 1995; McDonald, 1994).