Adult students have been a growing presence on college campuses during recent decades and there are numerous indicators that these students, often referred to as “nontraditional,” constitute a significant proportion of the undergraduate student body. National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) data indicate that 38 percent of the 2007 enrollment of more than eighteen million college students were twenty-five years of age or older (NCES 2009). NCES projections of higher education enrollment from 2007–2018 suggest that the number of students over twenty-five will remain stable or increase during the current decade (Hussar and Bailey 2009). Although the focus of this issue of Peer Review and the remainder of this article will be on adults beginning or continuing their enrollment as college students at a later-than-typical age, a 2002 NCES report has frequently been cited as noting that when the term “nontraditional student” is defined more broadly to include seven characteristics not typically associated with participation in college, a full 73 percent of students may be viewed as nontraditional (Choy 2002, 1). These characteristics include
K. Patricia Cross referred to some of the same student groups using the term “non-traditional” some twenty years ago (Cross 1981). The social and economic forces that have led to adults’ increased participation of in higher education in the decades since Cross used this term are not likely to abate in the near future. These influences include an aging and increasingly diverse population, the rapid pace of technological change, and the constantly shifting demands of the workplace in this era of a global economy. Adult learners who experience academic success in higher education tend to gain economic and personal benefits, which most likely provide social, political, and economic benefits for the broader society (Ritt 2008).
A Review of Spatial Distribution
The term spatial distribution simply refers to a statistical analysis of a phenomena and how it is spread over the Earth’s surface. Spatial distribution, as a form of empirical study, has been used to analyze the population of people, the distribution of real estate prices and the distribution of wages over a certain space. These studies indicate that the development of an urban environment must always account for spatial aspects and aim to produce an efficient spatial structure. Whether one analyzes through the lenses of an economist or environmentalist, it is understood that a deficient spatial structure can fragment labor and consumer markets, contribute to higher transaction costs due to increased distance between people and places, decrease quality of life by increasing travel time and increasing air pollution (Bertraud & Malpezzi, 2003). For a country with a landmass as large as Canada, the application of spatial distribution concepts in urban and rural development is especially important.
- The term gifted and talented is used to describe those students that display high levels of aptitude or achievement in terms of academic growth and development.
- Spanish Bilingual Education research papers determined that the nation’s large and ever increasing population of Spanish-speaking students is largely underserved in the educational system.
Introduction: Having a population size that is not dangerously large is the limit where the population size is acceptable and understood as the defined carrying capacity for humans1.
A 2001 report published by Canadian Geographer and authored by Bourn and Damaris, analyzed the implications of the uneven distribution of the population in Canada. The report identified localized growth and the concentration of people in metropolitan areas as a source of four major transformations in the country in the past, and predicted that population processes will be as important as political and social changes in the future. The major transformations include changes to labor markets and the welfare state, increasing ethno cultural diversity, demographic modifications of family forms and living arrangements, as well as the relationship among households. For the purposes of this paper, let us point out the issue of population and spatial demography as an example. In this case, as well as the in the area of family forms and living arrangements, triggered by constant changes in demographic changes directly caused the economic discrepancy we mentioned earlier. This started in the post-war period, when the parents of baby boomers initiated a mass movement to urban and suburb areas, enabling their children, who grew up in the 60s and 70s to create the demand for commodities such as high-rise apartments or running shoes. This also modified the spatial expression of social structure by increasing demand for educational and health care facilities. The move from bigger households, where extended families live under one roof to more independent households also contributed to demand for housing and services at a more geographically concentrated level(Bourn & Damaris, 2001).
Politicians, economists, and environmentalists are often seen arguing against one another in terms of many rules and regulations regarding issues affecting the population of any given country that they are to represent in their respective fields. However, these professionals are also supposed to work together when determining and deciding the best policies to enforce. The analysis of a country’s population growth and spatial distribution is a process that can help identify many trends in a country’s social and economic development. It is also possible to derive many lessons and general principles by understanding the causes and consequences of the pattern of population growth of a particular country. In this paper, we will analyze the statistical data relating to the population and spatial distribution of the urban and rural communities in Canada in order to illustrate these points. We will determine through which factors Canada’s change in population is affected most, and how this correlates to current living conditions.
These two forms of vulnerability are affected by both species’ mortality and habitat loss, which are the causes of intrinsic biological traits, extrinsic human induced effects and stochastic factors that likely determine the population trends ()....
According to Nasif Nahle, overpopulation is “a term that refers to a condition by which the population density enlarges to a limit that provokes the environmental deterioration, a remarkable decline in the quality of life, or a population collapse.” People often ignore the subject of overpopulation, but this predicament is the world’s leading problem that society is burdened with going into the future.
In the past twenty years, transformative learning (TL) has become one of the most prominent and debated theories in adult learning research, with the version of TL proposed by Jack Mezirow (2000) receiving perhaps the greatest attention. Mezirow and others view transformational learning as involving fundamental transformation of the adults’ core frames of reference, often in response to disorienting dilemmas—situations that challenge adults’ previous ways of thinking about the world and prompt them to reflect critically on previously held assumptions. While much of the research on transformational learned has focused on TL that occurs both in higher education and naturally as an outgrowth of adult life situations, some have also proposed that educators can help stimulate transformative learning by using teaching methods that foster critical reflection (Cranton 1994).