3M suppliers need to maintain records including genus, species and country of origin of the wood or plant-based fiber, and third-party certifications of materials and operations in the supply chain. 3M suppliers are required to have policies and due systems for sourcing pulp and paper and should require their suppliers to do the same. 3M will continue to work with suppliers through trainings and direct communication to help suppliers understand requirements and concepts in the policy.
The policy is being implemented in a step-wise approach to increase the proportion of products certified under the FSC standard. Where FSC products are not available, Staples accepts products certified under the PEFC, SFI and CSA systems. Suppliers are required to comply with all environmental and forestry laws and regulations. Suppliers are asked to confirm the sources of the fiber in the products, and indicate if the fiber has been legally harvested and traded. Suppliers are also asked to demonstrate that their products do not come from controversial sources, including wood harvested in violation of traditional and civil rights. Staples surveys paper product suppliers to confirm the sources of the fiber of their products and the certification requirements. The company also has a third party to assess the supply chain of the products on a random sample of the supplier base to confirm the validity of the information about the products. For suppliers sourcing from areas identified as potentially controversial (e.g. risk of illegal logging), suppliers are asked to demonstrate through credible third-party certification that the sourced products are non-controversial. Top suppliers are also requested to periodically report the environmental performance of their paper making facilities, or the papermakers from where they purchase the paper. The policy is being implemented in a phased approach to all paper products suppliers, starting with markets in North America and moving to Europe and other international markets. Implementation is prioritized to address potential risk based on the country of origin, source, and transparency of the supply chain.
From the private sector: Mario Abreu (Tetra-Pak), Sofie Beckham (formerly with IKEA), Anders Birul (Norske Skog), Adam Constanza (formerly with International Paper), Lena Dahl (Tetra-Pak), Bernard de Galembert (Confederation of European Industries), Patricia Donohue (Xerox
Corporation), Ragnar Friberg (Stora Enso), James Griffiths (WBCSD), Sharon Haines* (International Paper), Jukka Karppinen (Metsä Group), Peter Korogsgaard Kristensen, Ed Krasny (Kimberly-Clark), Celeste Kuta (Procter and Gamble), Diane Lyons (IBM), (DHL Group), Jessica McGlyn (formerly with International Paper), Bruce McIntyre (PricewaterhouseCoopers Canada), Neil Mendenhall (SCS Global Services), Hiro Nishimura (Oji Paper Japan), Mikko Ohela (formerly with Metsä Group), Antii Otsamo (Finnish Forest Industries), Cassie Phillips
(Weyerhaeuser), Otavio Pontes (Stora Enso), David Refkin (formerly with Time Inc.), Cathy Resler (formerly with Time Inc.), Amy Shaffer (formerly with Weyerhaeuser), Clifford Schneider (MeadWestvaco), Brigid Shea (formerly with International Wood Products Association), Jeffrey Shumaker (International Paper), Paul Skehan (European Retailers Roundtable), João Manuel Soares (Portucel Soporcel Group), Kristen Stevens (Wal-Mart), Erik Widén (Akzo Nobel/Eka Chemicals), Paul Wilson (CertiSource) and Paul Zambon (Keurhout), and members of the WBCSD Forest Solutions Group, in particular the Value Chain Action Team chaired by Joseph Lawson (MWV).
We tested whether effect estimates differed for cohorts for which the land use regression model cross-validation explained variance was smaller or larger than 50% by computing the chi-square test of heterogeneity. In addition, we tested whether effect estimates differed by region of Europe (North: Sweden, Norway, Finland, Denmark; West and Middle: United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Germany, France, Austria, and Switzerland; South: Italy and Greece). We did not perform effect modification analyses for individual-level variables because this paper focuses on differences in effect estimates related to elemental composition. Only sex was an effect modifier for the association between PM2.5 and natural mortality in the same cohorts ().
James Madison, of one those very same delegates, defined tyranny as “The accumulation of all powers...in the same hands, whether of one, a few, or many...” in Federalist Paper #47....
Solid wood, engineered wood, and paper-based products are manufactured using different technologies, but they may all come from the same forest or even the same tree. Some forest-based industries often use all parts of the tree for different products in a system of integrated processing facilities. In other instances, only the most valuable portions of the best trees are used. Raw tropical hardwoods are often produced under these circumstances.
It is easier to establish traceability for solid wood products than for paper-based products. Paper products are manufactured in pulp mills that typically draw wood from many sources. In the most complex cases, a network of dealers buying wood from many different loggers, landowners and sawmills may supply a pulp mill (Box 1 below). In a sawmill, logs usually lose their link to individual landowners in a sorting yard in the same way an agricultural business would combine grain from individual farmers in a common silo. The wood collected from sawmills – often chips that are by-products of solid-wood products manufacturing – further lose their individual identity during the paper making process.
Process: Samples of paper are broken down into slurry and examined under a microscope by trained analysts. While fiber analysis is not a traceability tool, it can identify certain characteristics about the fibers that compose paper products, including whether the species are hardwood or softwood varieties and, in some cases, the genus of the trees.
In the framework of the multicenter ESCAPE (European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects) and TRANSPHORM (Transport related Air Pollution and Health impacts–Integrated Methodologies for Assessing Particulate Matter) projects, we added standardized exposure assessment for air pollution to mortality data from 19 ongoing cohort studies across Europe. Associations of particle mass (PM2.5, PM10, PMcoarse, and PM2.5 absorbance) and nitrogen oxides (NO2 and NOx) with natural-cause mortality in the same cohorts have been reported previously (). We found a statistically significant elevated hazard ratio for PM2.5 of 1.07 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02, 1.13] per 5 μg/m3. In this paper we report associations with particle elemental composition in 19 European cohorts to assess whether specific components are associated with natural-cause mortality. A second aim was to assess whether the previously reported association with PM2.5 mass was explained by specific elements. Associations of particle composition and cardiovascular mortality have been published separately ().