The long history of heterogeneity in both terminology and theory about psychopathy continues. The modern era of thinking about psychopathy begins with Cleckley's work, originally done in 1941. Cleckley's emphasis of the psychopath as a constellation of various personality traits was essentially overturned by the American psychiatric establishment in revisions to the DSM, culminating in 1980 in a behaviorally based description and the use of the term antisocial personality disorder. Robert Hare, through his writing and widely popular testing initiatives, returned to a personality/trait approach derived from Cleckley's original factors. Hare's approach and tests have been particularly influential both in practical forensic settings and in academic research. Although a number of other tests of psychopathy have been developed and a number of authors have expressed reservations about Hare, Hare's approach has dominated. Hare has also been important in popularizing psychopathy in the lay public, especially via his 1993 book and by the 2006 a work he co-authored, examining the psychopath in a business context. This business/leadership theme was later followed up by Lawrence (2010). Hare's works have tended to be somewhat sensationalized and have co-mingled academic and lay (newspaper type) accounts. Despite much research on neurophysiological correlates of psychopathy, no clear consensus has developed yet concerning a neuropsychological theory of psychopathy. Many points of controversy are left unanswered and many key issues remain to be addressed.
The purpose of this paper is to clearly define each of my strengths and weaknesses and figure out a way to identify my personal strengths and weaknesses.
Maden, A. (2007). Dangerous and severe personality disorder: Antecedents and origins. (suppl. 49), s8- s11. doi: 10.1192/bjp.190.5.s8 The origins of the Dangerous and Severe Personality Disorder (DSPD) Programme can be traced to developments in structured assessment and services for the cognitive-behavioural treatment of sexual and violent offenders in other countries. A comparison with these other services highlights the strengths and weaknesses of DSPD. The decision to use a medical model raises ethical and financial questions that may jeopardise the Programme's future.
Howard, R. C. (1986). Psychopathy: A psychobiological perspective. (6), 795-806. doi:10.1016/0191-8869(86)90078-4 After critically examining the concept of psychopathy and reviewing the major existing theories of psychopathy in the light of a psychobiological conception of abnormal behaviour (ohman, 1981), this paper attempts to present an integrated, psychobiological model of psychopathy. Essentially this analyses psychopathy in terms of the predisposing influences, the triggering environmental events which initiate psychopathic behaviour, and the neurophsychological mechanisms which mediate it. It is suggested that individuals who show chronic antisocial behaviour, conforming to the North American term 'sociopath', may demonstrate a maturational deficit but do not necessarily show a psychopathic personality disorder. The latter is said to be characterised, at a personality trait level, by high Impulsiveness and Psychopathy (Blackburn, 1982 a, b), reflecting interactive deficits in goal direction and affect. At a dynamic (state) level, a psychopathic personality disorder is said to be characterised by a lack of coping, reflecting either, in the case of the secondary psychopath, a deficit in primary appraisal, (over-perception of threat), or in the case of the primary psychopath, a deficit in secondary appraisal (low perceived control over aversive environmental events). It is further suggested that a genetic predisposition to social withdrawal and exposure to an uncontrollably aversive early environment may interact to predispose an individual to develop a psychopathic personality disorder in adulthood. . . . There will be yet others within the broad class of so-called 'sociopathic' individuals who are neither primary nor secondary psychopaths. These individuals will not be particularly susceptible to stress either in the form of boredom or threat, and so episodes of 'psychopathic' behaviour will not readily be triggered. In general, therefore, although often recidivistically criminal, they should not be regarded as psychopathic in the sense of being personality disordered and would therefore more properly be detained in prison than in an institution for mentally abnormal offenders. Others again may tread a tightrope between legality and illegality and correspond to the 'non-institutionalised psychopath' (Widom, 1977), who while sharing some of the personality characteristics of the criminal psychopath, does not generally engage in antisocial behaviour.
Porter, S. (1996). Without conscience or without active conscience? The etiology of psychopathy revisited. (2), 179-189. doi:10.1016/1359-1789(95)00010-0 Despite an impressive body of research spanning seven decades, the causes of psychopathy and psychopathic violence remain enigmatic for mental health professionals and society as a whole. A keystone of the disorder is the absence of normal human emotional experience. In recent years, a predominant view has been that a genetic predisposition is essential to its formation while environmental factors determine the course of the disorder. The present paper proposes an alternate, less common pathway to psychopathy in which environmental factors are critical ("secondary psychopathy"). Clinical and empirical evidence is reviewed supporting the hypothesis that negative childhood experiences can profoundly affect emotional functioning in adulthood. Specifically, certain individuals who are severely traumatized or disillusioned by loved ones might over time learn to "turn off" their emotions as an effective coping mechanism, later emerging as psychopathic personality disorder. It is argued that, with continued validation of the hypothesis, secondary psychopathy should be considered a distinctive dissociative disorder based on this detachment of emotion and cognition/behavior. . . . distinguished between two variants of psychopathy based on different etiological pathways, one (primary) being predominantly congenital and the other (secondary) primarily environmental. . . . This article suggests the possibility that over time negative environmental experiences can sometimes contribute to deactivation or vitiation of normal human emotion and eventually lead to a type of secondary psychopathy - a dissociative disorder.. . . . Despite absence of empathy for others, the volition of secondary (and fundamental) psychopaths is presumably perfectly functional. If the secondary psychopathy category receives continued validation, the salient implications relate to intervention. These individuals might represent a population for which early intervention or treatment in adulthood might be beneficial for society.
2. Given that there are strengths and weaknesses in the arguments made in all of the articles in the book, you will not receive full credit for an analysis if you fail to mention at least one strength and one weakness for each of the two articles. You should use the words “strength” and “weakness” in your analysis so that is clear to me what points you consider to be strengths and weaknesses.
First, you must be able to identify your own personal strengths and weaknesses in order to become a lifelong learner and an essential part of a ?team?.
1. be sure to devote the ENTIRE first two pages of your analysis to an overview of the arguments made in each of the two articles and the other three pages of your analysis to a discussion of the strengths and weaknesses in the arguments made in both of the articles and your opinion regarding the issue.
4. Similarly, when writing the other three pages of your analysis, start with your discussion of the strengths and weaknesses in the first article. Then write your discussion of the strengths and weaknesses in the second article and, finally, write your opinion regarding the issue. Remember that the strengths and weaknesses you write about should pertain to the arguments made in the two articles and not to issues such as whether or not an article was poorly or well written or whether or not you liked a writer’s style.
Address the following in your paper:•Summarize the major aspects of constructivism.
•Analyze the strengths and weaknesses of constructivism, in general.
•Apply constructivism to a practical situation in your specialization.
As I reflect upon on my strengths and weaknesses as related to this course, I think that the old saying about how my "greatest weakness became my greatest strength" applies here. One of the problems I first encountered in this class was not being able to get an immediate answer when I was having difficulty with something. In a traditional classroom the teacher is always physically present, so if there is an immediate need he or she is usually immediately accessible in one way or another (in class or during office hours). This problem, however, turned around as I gradually learned to dig deeper and investigate further for my own answers. I also learned to rely on my learning community (classmates), too. In the beginning of the semester there was an adjustment period, but as the semester progressed and as I began to work with the system, I learned to be less dependent on the instructor and more dependent on me. I think this was a good learning experience. Sometimes teachers answer far too many questions easily when they need to let the student search for their own answer. As a distance-learning student, I found that it was important to work independently to find solutions to problems. This is where my critical thinking skills came in handy. I don't mean to disregard the need for the learning community, but being an independent learner enables a student to be a better member of that learning community. So, to summarize, my greatest weaknessthe inability to access information instantlybecame my greatest strengthmy ability to become an independent learner and achiever.
After reviewing the findings and the results there are strength and weaknesses within the experiment. In the case of strength, because this is an initial test, this can set up as a baseline and reference for future testing.