In particular we have seen so many botched implementations of service orientation - from the tendency to hide complexity away in ESB's , to failed multi-year initiatives that cost millions and deliver no value, to centralised governance models that actively inhibit change, that it is sometimes difficult to see past these problems.
When we've talked about microservices a common question is whether this is just Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) that we saw a decade ago. There is merit to this point, because the microservice style is very similar to what some advocates of SOA have been in favor of. The problem, however, is that SOA means , and that most of the time that we come across something called "SOA" it's significantly different to the style we're describing here, usually due to a focus on ESBs used to integrate monolithic applications.
Many object-oriented designers, including ourselves, use the term service object in the sense for an object that carries out a significant process that isn't tied to an entity. This is a different concept to how we're using "service" in this article. Sadly the term service has both meanings and we have to live with the polyseme.
The term "microservice" was discussed at a workshop of software architects near Venice in May, 2011 to describe what the participants saw as a common architectural style that many of them had been recently exploring. In May 2012, the same group decided on "microservices" as the most appropriate name. James presented some of these ideas as a case study in March 2012 at 33rd Degree in Krakow in as did Fred George . Adrian Cockcroft at Netflix, describing this approach as "fine grained SOA" was pioneering the style at web scale as were many of the others mentioned in this article - Joe Walnes, Dan North, Evan Botcher and Graham Tackley.
Those we know about who are in some way pioneering the architectural style include Amazon, Netflix, , the , , Forward and . The conference circuit in 2013 was full of examples of companies that are moving to something that would class as microservices - including Travis CI. In addition there are plenty of organizations that have long been doing what we would class as microservices, but without ever using the name. (Often this is labelled as SOA - although, as we've said, SOA comes in many contradictory forms. )
CBDI-SAE for SOA “ is a comprehensive, defined approach for service architecture including taxonomy, classification and policies together with repeatable service engineering processes that guide the delivery of the agile enterprise, implemented in a knowledgebase with integrity between the architecture concepts, processes, tasks, techniques and deliverables.” 
We cannot say there is a formal definition of the microservices architectural style, but we can attempt to describe what we see as common characteristics for architectures that fit the label. As with any definition that outlines common characteristics, not all microservice architectures have all the characteristics, but we do expect that most microservice architectures exhibit most characteristics. While we authors have been active members of this rather loose community, our intention is to attempt a description of what we see in our own work and in similar efforts by teams we know of. In particular we are not laying down some definition to conform to.
In recent decades, Internet of Things (IOT) has been widely used in the communication of equipment and resources. An important and appropriate application of this technology includes medical devices and resources. With the aid of this technology, the services provided for the end user for example, the patients admitted to the hospital will have greater speed and accuracy. Further, in the necessary care of chronic diseases or extensive applications like services for the elderly or applications requiring momentary knowledge on a large scale and in the online form, using this technology is undoubtedly a great help to better do the job. In this paper, attempts have been made to investigate the Internet of Things in the field of medicine with a service-oriented and security approach and make different comparisons concerning the works conducted, researchers, success, development of Internet of Things in health care systems in terms of empowering the technologies and various applications of Internet of Things in the medical industry and report the results. Ultimately, the opportunities and challenges ahead in the use of Internet of Things in medical applications and health field have been stated.
This common manifestation of SOA has led some microservice advocates to reject the SOA label entirely, although others consider microservices to be one form of SOA , perhaps . Either way, the fact that SOA means such different things means it's valuable to have a term that more crisply defines this architectural style.
Fábio Luciano Verdi is currently a post-doc student at the Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering (FEEC), State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Brazil. He received his Master degree in Computer Science and Ph.D. degree in Electrical Engineering both from State University of Campinas (UNICAMP). His main interests include computer networks, mobility, routing, service oriented architectures, inter-domain services and next generation Internet Architectures.
This work presents a service-oriented architecture for interdomain service provisioning in optical networks. The architecture introduces a service layer that concentrates all the interactions among domains necessary for service provisioning. A service layer is an alternative to the GMPLS (Generalized Multiprotocol Label Switching) architecture, but without a rigid control plane as found in GMPLS. We start by defining a set of basic services to provide single end-to-end (e2e) interdomain connections. Then, more sophisticated services are created through the composition of these basic services. The interdomain Optical VPN (Virtual Private Network) service is considered in order to illustrate the composition of services. A prototype of the architecture was designed and implemented using Web services as the main technology. The architecture was evaluated in terms of speed, scalability, and bandwidth consumption necessary to establish e2e interdomain connections and Optical VPNs.
And SOA is hardly the root of this history. I remember people saying "we've been doing this for years" when the SOA term appeared at the beginning of the century. One argument was that this style sees its roots as the way COBOL programs communicated via data files in the earliest days of enterprise computing. In another direction, one could argue that microservices are the same thing as the Erlang programming model, but applied to an enterprise application context.