Larsson, H., Andershed, H., & Lichtenstein, P. (2006). A genetic factor explains most of the variation in the psychopathic personality. (2), 221-230. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.115.2.221 The psychopathic personality can be conceptualized as three interrelated dimensions, (a) an interpersonal style of glibness, grandiosity, and manipulation; (b) an affective disposition of callousness, lack of empathy, and unemotionality; and (c) a behavioral/lifestyle dimension of impulsivity, need for stimulation, and irresponsibility, underpinning a higher order construct, psychopathic personality. The authors used a self-report questionnaire (The Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory) to study the importance of genetic and environmental influences on psychopathic personality traits in a sample of 1,090 monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs, aged 16-17 years. Results showed a strong genetic influence behind the higher order "psychopathic personality" factor, underpinned by the three psychopathic personality dimensions. Over and above the effects to the higher order factor, significant unique genetic influences were also found in the callous/unemotional and in the impulsive/irresponsible dimension, but not in the grandiose/manipulative dimension. The authors propose that this latent psychopathic personality factor is a meaningful target for future etiological research. . . . In summary, by using a hierarchical common pathway model, this study offers insights into the etiology of the psychopathic personality constellation in adolescence. We showed that genetic effects accounted for a substantial proportion of variance in the latent psychopathic personality factor, which makes it a promising target for future research.
Kiehl, K. A., Bates, A. T., Laurens, K. R.; Hare, R. D., & Liddle, P. F. (2006). Brain potentials implicate temporal lobe abnormalities in criminal psychopaths. (3), 443-453. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.115.3.443 Psychopathy is associated with abnormalities in attention and orienting. However, few studies have examined the neural systems underlying these processes. To address this issue, the authors recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) while 80 incarcerated men, classified as psychopathic or nonpsychopathic via the Hare Psychopathy Checklist—Revised (R. D. Hare, 1991, 2003), completed an auditory oddball task. Consistent with hypotheses, processing of targets elicited larger frontocentral negativities (N550) in psychopaths than in nonpsychopaths. Psychopaths also showed an enlarged N2 and reduced P3 during target detection. Similar ERP modulations have been reported in patients with amygdala and temporal lobe damage. The data are interpreted as supporting the hypothesis that psychopathy may be related to dysfunction of the paralimbic system—a system that includes parts of the temporal and frontal lobes.
Family members also contribute to work readiness and employability in a number of ways, both directly and indirectly, and in manners beyond those typically recognized (Timmons, Schuster, & Moloney, 2001; University of Arkansas, 2000; Way & Rossmann, 1996). Family members act as systems advocates, role models, teachers, service coordinators, and job developers (Lankard, 1993). They can play a significant role in finding employment for their adult children with disabilities and provide important job supports that can help these young adults to keep a job (Crudden, McBroom, Skinner, & Moore, 1998; University of Arkansas).
Many of the socialization processes that lead to gender differentiated outcomes, including gender segregation, are not well understood. In addition, more work is needed to identify effective means to prevent and minimize gender biased attitudes and behaviour. Future research is also needed to document the experiences of children who do not conform to traditional gender roles (e.g., children with same-sex parents or who are transgendered).
The credit from the UK investors led to the hasty construction of a rail system over the next few years. On 22nd Dec’ 1851, the first train came on the track to carry the construction material at Rorkee in India. With a passage of one and a half years, the first passenger train service was introduced between Bori Bunder, Bombay and Thana on the providential date 16th Apr’ 1853. This rail track covered a distance of 34 km (21 miles).On the occasion of India’s Independence in 1947, the maximum share of the railways went under the terrain of Pakistan. The existing rail networks were forfeited for zones in 1951 and 6 zones were formed in 1952. In 1985, the diesel and electric locomotives took the place of steam locomotives. In 1995, the whole railway reservation system was rationalized with computerization.
Estimates of the employment rate of persons with disabilities vary, depending upon factors such as the method of data collection used, and the definition of disability. Data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) indicate that in 2002, an estimated 30.9 percent of civilian non-institutionalized people with a disability in the United States, age 18-24, were employed, compared to 84.7 percent of those without a disability (Houtenville, 2003). This statistic indicates that many adults with disabilities face significant barriers to participation in the workforce. The BLS estimate is based on the Current Population Survey (CPS), which is a monthly survey conducted by the Bureau of the Census. For purposes of the CPS, persons with a disability are those who have a health problem or disability that prevents them from working or limits the kind or amount of work they can do.
Schools are major contexts for gender socialization, in part because children spend large amounts of time engaged with peers in such settings.4 For nearly all psychological traits on which young boys and girls differ (e.g., reading ability, play preferences), the distribution of the two groups is overlapping. Schools can magnify or diminish gender differences by providing environments that promote within-gender similarity and between-gender differences, or the inverse (within-gender variability and between group similarity).
The main investors by country were Myanmar’s neighbors China (including Hong Kong) and Thailand, followed by South Korea, Singapore, and others. While the vast majority of people in the national workforce are subsistence farmers, the gas industry and the precious/semi-precious stone-mining industries have provided the largest incomes, with gas earning of $3.6 billion for 2011–2012 and precious stones earning of approximately $3.4 billion in 2010 from auction sales.
Despite a shortage of natural gas for the domestic market, most of the natural gas is exported. Currently all gas exports go to Thailand. Yet, a new 1,800-kilometer-long pipeline – which will cross the whole country, from Kyauk Phyu in Rakhine state to Kunming, China – will commence later in 2013
Another pressing challenge is the participation of youth with disabilities in state and local work force development initiatives, such as the Workforce Investment Act (WIA) of 1998. WIA services for youth include: (1) establishment of local youth councils, (2) Youth Opportunity Grants that promote employment and training, (3) comprehensive career development services based on individualized assessment and planning, (4) youth connections and access to the One-Stop career center system, and (5) performance accountability focused on employment. Participation in WIA programs offers expanded opportunities for community-based work experiences and access to employment training services and career supports (Luecking & Crane, 2002). It is critically important to ensure that initiatives such as WIA’s youth employment programs are fully accessible to individuals with disabilities as they pursue postsecondary education and employment opportunities. WIA programs, by design, further promote cross-agency approaches to serving youth, leading to strong coordination and collaboration of services.
Young adults with disabilities continue to face significant difficulties in securing jobs, accessing postsecondary education, living independently, fully participating in their communities, and accessing necessary community services such as healthcare and transportation. It is well understood that preparation for the transition from high school to postsecondary education, employment, and independent living must begin early, or at least by age 14. It is at this age that students’ IEP teams must engage in discussions regarding the types of course work students will need, at a minimum, to be able to enroll in postsecondary education programs, the types of learning options and experiences students will need to develop basic work skills for employment, and the skills needed for independent living.
Like teachers, peers contribute to the socialization of gender difference via multiple pathways. Upon entering school, children encounter large numbers of peers, many of whom model traditional gender behaviour, producing and reinforcing the content of gender stereotypes.