Plant-derived medicines have been a part of our traditional health care system, and the antimicrobial properties of plant-derived compounds are well documented. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of an aqueous extract of Terminalia chebula (a medicinal plant) on salivary samples and its potential for use as an anticaries agent in the form of mouthwash. A concentrated aqueous extract was prepared from the fruit of T. chebula . A mouth rinse of 10% concentration was prepared by diluting the extract in sterile distilled water. The efficacy of the mouth rinse was assessed by testing on 50 salivary samples. Salivary samples were collected from subjects assessed to be at high risk for caries. Salivary pH, buffering capacity, and microbial activity were assessed before rinsing, immediately after, and 10 min, 30 min, and 1 h after rinsing. There was an increase in the pH and buffering capacity and decrease in microbial count. An aqueous extract of T. chebula used as a mouth rinse seems to be an effective anticaries agent.
Stress is one of the basic factors in the etiology of number of diseases. Cold-stress occurs when the surrounding temperature drops below 18 degrees C, the body may not be able to warm itself, and hence serious cold-related illnesses, permanent tissue damage and death may results. The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of Triphala (Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis) against the cold stress-induced alterations in the behavioral and biochemical abnormalities in four different groups (saline control, Triphala, cold-stress and Triphala with cold-stress) of Wistar strain albino rats. In this study cold-stress (8 degrees C for 16 h/d/15 days) was applied and the oxidative stress was assessed by measuring the extent of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and the changes in corticosterone levels. Upon exposure to the cold-stress, a significant (P
Triphala is categorized as a rejuvenator and antioxidant-rich Ayurvedic herbal formulation and has traditionally been used in various gastric problems including intestinal inflammation. The aim of the present study was to examine the comparative enteroprotective effect of Triphala formulations against methotrexate-induced intestinal damage in rats. Triphala formulations were prepared by mixing equal (1:1:1) and unequal (1:2:4) proportions of Terminalia chebula Retz., Terminalia belerica (Gaertn.) Roxb. and Emblica officinalis Gaertn. Intestinal damage was induced by administering methotrexate (MTX) in a dose of 12 mg/kg, orally for 4 days to albino rats. The intestinal damage response was assessed by gross and microscopical injury, measuring the intestinal permeability to phenol red and tissue biochemical parameters. Triphala equal and unequal formulations at the dose of 540 mg/kg significantly restored the depleted protein level in brush border membrane of intestine, phospholipid and glutathione content and decreased the myeloperoxidase and xanthine oxidase level in intestinal mucosa of methotrexate-treated rats. In addition, Triphala unequal formulation showed significant decrease in permeation clearance of phenol red with significant attenuation in the histopathological changes, level of disaccharidase in brush border membrane vesicles and lipid peroxidation content of intestinal mucosa. Based on the data generated, it is suggested that Triphala unequal formulation provides significantly more protection than Triphala equal formulation against methotrexate-induced damage in rat intestine. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Pestalotiopsis species were most dominant endophytic species isolated from four medicinal plants including Terminalia arjuna, Terminalia chebula, Azadirachta indica, and Holarrhena antidysenterica. Thirty Pestalotiopsis species isolated from different parts of the medicinal plants were selected for the study. The antioxidant and antihypertensive properties of Pestalotiopsis isolates were determined by measuring 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl inhibitory activity, lipid peroxidation, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition activity. Pestalotiopsis isolates of T. arjuna origin exhibited maximum radical scavenging activity compared with the others. The IC50 values of Pestalotiopsis extracts for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity ranged from 14 to 27 microg/mL compared with 15 and 6 microg/mL for butylated hydroxytoluene and ascorbic acid, respectively. The DNA damage study was also done for three isolates, TC-315, TA-37, and TA-60; TA-37 gave 80% protection. The IC50 values of Pestalotiopsis extracts for lipid peroxidation ranged between 30 and 35.5 microg/mL, while for the positive control butylated hydroxytoluene, it was 26 microg/mL. Out of 32 fungal extracts screened for antihypertensive assay, five (TA-37, TA-60, TA-102, TA-103, and TC-320) showed >60% inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme. The IC50 values for five extracts ranged from 21 to 37 microg/mL and was 20 microg/mL for captopril used as a positive control. The antibacterial activity was measured by the microplate-based turbidity measurement method. Four Pestalotiopsis extracts (TA-04, TA-37, TA-60, and TA-102) showed >75% inhibition against five bacterial strains including Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum, and Staphylococcus aureus. The antioxidant, antibacterial, and antihypertensive activities demonstrated the potential of Pestalotiopsis extracts as therapeutic targets.
Ethanolic extracts of 30 Thai medicinal plants, traditionally used as alternative treatments in diabetes, were evaluated for antioxidative activity by the 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) method. They were evaluated in vitro for oxidative stress by thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) assay in pooled plasma of diabetic patients compared to without treatment of the extracts (control). The extracts were also assayed for protein glycation. The results showed that five plants had strong antioxidant activity: Phyllanthus emblica Linn. (PE), Terminalia chebula Retz. (TC), Morinda citrifolia Linn. (MC), Kaempferia parviflora Wall. (KP) and Houttuynia cordata Thunb.(HC), respectively. Thirty plant extracts were good correlation between total antioxidant activity and antiradical activity by TBARS as well as by glycation (r = 0.856, p
Synopsis This study aimed to evaluate the free radical scavenging and inhibition properties of five medicinal plants, including Quercus infectoria Olive., Terminalia chebula Retz., Lavendula stoechas L., Mentha longifolia L., Rheum palmatum L., toward the activity of mushroom tyrosinase using l-tyrosine and l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) as the substrate. The methanol extracts of Q. infectoria and T. chebula showed strong radical scavenging effect in 2,2'-dipheny l-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay (IC(50) = 15.3 and 82.2 mug mL(-1) respectively). These plants also showed inhibitory effects against the activity of mushroom tyrosinase in hydroxylation of l-tyrosine (85.9% and 82.2% inhibition, respectively). These two plants also inhibited the oxidation of l-DOPA similar to kojic acid as positive control (IC(50) = 102.8 and 192.6 mug mL(-1) respectively). In general Q. infectoria and T. chebula significantly inhibited tyrosinase activity and DPPH radical. Both activities were concentration-dependant but not in linear manner. It is needed to study the cytotoxicity of these plant extracts in pigment cell culture before further evaluation and moving to in vivo conditions.
Triphala, a mixture of Emblica officinalis, Terminalia chebula, and Terminalia bellirica, containing ingredients from plant origin, is often prone to microbial contamination. A high level of microbial contamination was observed in Triphala samples obtained from different sources. On gamma radiation processing, a sharp decline in log CFU was observed with increasing radiation dose and a complete decontamination at 5 kGy. Average D10 value for total aerobic and fungal counts were observed to be 0.55 +/- 0.073 kGy and 0.94 +/- 0.043 kGy, respectively. Water extracts of irradiated samples showed linearly increasing concentration of gallic acid (3.3 to 4.5 times), total phenolic contents (2.16 to 2.87 times), and antioxidant properties with increasing radiation dose up to 25 kGy. The increase could be attributed to easy release of active ingredients from their radiation degraded complex forms. Aflatoxin B(1) and ochratoxin could not be detected in the samples. Gamma-radiation dose up to 5 kGy could be safely used to hygienize Triphala.
The present study seeks to fill this knowledge gap by assessing the carbon sequestration and economic potential of three extensively used medicinal tree species of Emblica officinalis (Amla), Terminalia belerica (Bahera), and Terminalia chebula (Harar) in the state of Sikkim with the help of the project-based comprehensive mitigation assessment process (PROCOMAP) model.
AIM OF THE STUDY: Traditional medicine of clod desert Ladakh has large potential to treat various ailments among tribal communities inhabited in the remotest region of Indian subcontinent. This study was conducted to document the new ethno-medico-botanical information and traditional use of medicinal plants against kidney and urinary disorders, and thus to conserve the rapidly disappearing traditional knowledge system of Amchis of Ladakh. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The information was collected from 105 villages of Leh and Kargil districts of Ladakh region by involving 47 Amchis (the herbalists), village heads and old aged persons including women population through on spot interview and repeated queries among other interviewees over a period of 3 years from 2004-2006. RESULTS: The use of 68 medicinal plants belonging to 29 families and 58 genera of clod desert was documented against the treatment of kidney and urinary disorders in the tribal communities of Ladakh region in India. These species were used in combination of some exotic species such as Bergenia ligulata, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Crocus sativus, Elettaria cardamomum, Emblica officinalis, Ficus religiosa, Mangifera indica, Punica granatum, Santalum album, Spondiax axillaris, Terminalia belerica, Terminalia chebula, Zingiber officinale and some medicinal stones, minerals and salts etc. Problem in urine discharge, burning sensation and painful urination, inflammation and bleeding in the kidney, irritable condition of bladder, haemorrhage of kidney and removal of blocked urine and kidney stone were the frequently reported disorders in the study area. CONCLUSION: The effectiveness of traditional system of medicine, role of Amchis in preparation of remedies according to age, sex and severity of ailment, method of preparation, doses and its administrations among tribal communities of Ladakh provides certain new information. Though the system is extensively used among the tribal communities in the remotest regions but still it has a great scope of proper phytochemical and pharmacological validation of the medicinal plants used in different remedies for conservation and development of traditional system of medicine according to modernization.
We describe a patient with depression who was well controlled with sertraline monotherapy developing two relapses of depression in close temporal relationship with starting ayurvedic herbal mixtures. We discuss the possibility of a pharmacokinetic herb-drug interaction decreasing the therapeutic efficacy of sertraline leading to the relapses of depression. We speculate the herbal plant most likely to be responsible for this interaction is either Terminalia chebula or Commiphora wighteii.