The Millennium Development Goals Report 2015 - the United NationsAppropriate for monitoring progress towards the MDGs, as reflected in the list below A number UnITED nATIOnS EnTITY FOR GEnDER EQUALITY AnD THE EMPOWERMEnT OF WOMEn - Un WOMEn will, and collective, long-term effortReproductive Health and Gender Equality: Method, Measurement, and(Cited from Chen and Ravallion 2008, policy research paper 4703) Based on the united nations 2009 Millennium development Goals Report, subSaharanEnding Asian Deprivations: Compulsions for a Fair, Prosperous andThe Costs of Missing the Millennium Development Goal on Gender Equity Working Paper Asian Development Bank (ADB) Human Development Research Paper 2010/46thematic paper on mdg 3: promote gender - OECDMDG 3, to promote gender equality and women s empowerment, includes Millennium Development Goals: National Reports, a Look through a Gender Lens Research suggests that female-headed households, even when they are not
The long history of heterogeneity in both terminology and theory about psychopathy continues. The modern era of thinking about psychopathy begins with Cleckley's work, originally done in 1941. Cleckley's emphasis of the psychopath as a constellation of various personality traits was essentially overturned by the American psychiatric establishment in revisions to the DSM, culminating in 1980 in a behaviorally based description and the use of the term antisocial personality disorder. Robert Hare, through his writing and widely popular testing initiatives, returned to a personality/trait approach derived from Cleckley's original factors. Hare's approach and tests have been particularly influential both in practical forensic settings and in academic research. Although a number of other tests of psychopathy have been developed and a number of authors have expressed reservations about Hare, Hare's approach has dominated. Hare has also been important in popularizing psychopathy in the lay public, especially via his 1993 book and by the 2006 a work he co-authored, examining the psychopath in a business context. This business/leadership theme was later followed up by Lawrence (2010). Hare's works have tended to be somewhat sensationalized and have co-mingled academic and lay (newspaper type) accounts. Despite much research on neurophysiological correlates of psychopathy, no clear consensus has developed yet concerning a neuropsychological theory of psychopathy. Many points of controversy are left unanswered and many key issues remain to be addressed.
Porter, S. (1996). Without conscience or without active conscience? The etiology of psychopathy revisited. (2), 179-189. doi:10.1016/1359-1789(95)00010-0 Despite an impressive body of research spanning seven decades, the causes of psychopathy and psychopathic violence remain enigmatic for mental health professionals and society as a whole. A keystone of the disorder is the absence of normal human emotional experience. In recent years, a predominant view has been that a genetic predisposition is essential to its formation while environmental factors determine the course of the disorder. The present paper proposes an alternate, less common pathway to psychopathy in which environmental factors are critical ("secondary psychopathy"). Clinical and empirical evidence is reviewed supporting the hypothesis that negative childhood experiences can profoundly affect emotional functioning in adulthood. Specifically, certain individuals who are severely traumatized or disillusioned by loved ones might over time learn to "turn off" their emotions as an effective coping mechanism, later emerging as psychopathic personality disorder. It is argued that, with continued validation of the hypothesis, secondary psychopathy should be considered a distinctive dissociative disorder based on this detachment of emotion and cognition/behavior. . . . distinguished between two variants of psychopathy based on different etiological pathways, one (primary) being predominantly congenital and the other (secondary) primarily environmental. . . . This article suggests the possibility that over time negative environmental experiences can sometimes contribute to deactivation or vitiation of normal human emotion and eventually lead to a type of secondary psychopathy - a dissociative disorder.. . . . Despite absence of empathy for others, the volition of secondary (and fundamental) psychopaths is presumably perfectly functional. If the secondary psychopathy category receives continued validation, the salient implications relate to intervention. These individuals might represent a population for which early intervention or treatment in adulthood might be beneficial for society.
Hare, R. D. (1980). A research scale for the assessment of psychopathy in criminal populations.(2), 111-119. doi:10.1016/0191-8869(80)90028-8 This paper describes an early phase in the development of new research scale for the assessment of psychopathy in criminal populations. The scale is meant to be a sort of operational definition of the procedures that go into making global ratings of psychopathy. While the interrater reliability of these ratings is very high ( > 0.85) they are difficult to make, require a considerable amount of experience, and the procedures involved are not easily communicated to other investigators. Following a series of analyses, 22 items were chosen as representative of the type of information used in making global ratings. Two investigators then used interview and case-history data to complete the 22-item checklist for 143 male prison inmates. The correlation between the two sets of total checklist scores was 0.93 and coefficient alpha was 0.88, indicating a very high degree of scale reliability. The correlation between the total checklist scores and global ratings of psychopathy was 0.83. A series of multivariate analyses explored the factorial structure of the scale and demonstrated its ability to discriminate very accurately between inmates with high and low ratings of psychopathy. Preliminary indications are that the checklist will hold up well to crossvalidation. . . . The Cleckley criteria can be reduced to five factors: (1) an inability to develop warm, genuine relationships with others, a lack of empathy and a callous disregard for the rights and feelings of others; (2) an unstable, transient lifestyle, with an absence of long-term commitments or plans; (3) a general inability to accept responsibility for persistent antisocial behavior; (4) an absence of clinically significant intellectual and psychiatric problems; (5) and the presence of weak or unstable behavioral controls (Hare 1980). . . . Presents Hare's Original 22 item Psychopathy Checklist (PCL)
Gender differences on short-term memory tasks focus on differences in strategy use and the difference in women’s adaptation to tasks that require efficient retention of sequences (Kimura, 1999).