In the process of making corrugated boards, steam is used for softening them since the paper can absorb water. After they are softened, heat comes in at the dry-end for drying the newly formed paper where they are heated from the bottom using hot plates. While the moisture makes them softer, the heat makes the, pliable which prevents the medium form being too dry. When it is too dry, it cannot form properly.
This article () has been controversial from its initial publication. We do not wish to discuss the merits of the authors’ conclusions or their implications for the commercial products in question. Those issues have been debated in the open scientific literature since the publication of the paper, and we agree with many of the critiques. However, the retraction of any paper because it is “inconclusive” has adverse implications on the integrity of the concept of the peer-review process as the critical foundation of unbiased scientific inquiry.
This page contains various properties of paper, how these propertiesare measured and how are they relevant to end user and/or papermaker. Under TAPPIstandard all tests are carried out at 230C ± 10C and 50 + 2% relative humidity.
Technically, shade is an important characteristic within the definition of a paper's whiteness. Shade, particularly in color printing, can directly impact the correct look and feel of the printed images.
To learn more on the topic you may safely use free sample research papers on physical since from which you may learn that in a historical context, the association of concepts physical science and natural sciences is impermissible, as in the period of development of physical science natural sciences were not yet formed.
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The specific heat capacity of a material is a measure of the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of a specific quantity of that material by a specific amount. The units of specific heat capacity are Kilojoules per Kilogram Celsius. The specific heat capacity of paper is 1.4 Kilojoules per Kilogram Celsius or 0.33 Btu/lb/0F.
The first reason corrugated paper is the highest recyclable paper material is because 80% of goods packaged in paper are packaged using the corrugated paper. This also means it will be discarder in the highest volumes. It is easy to collect them in large numbers from retailers who have them in bulk after purchasing of goods. This further makes it quite economical to recycle them. another benefit is reducing disposal costs since retailers and user do not have to dispose them. rather, the company will recycle them.
The nature of science is such that individual studies are rarely, if ever, conclusive. Numerous published studies have later been found to be deeply flawed through further scientific investigation, as may well be the study by Séralini et al. To our knowledge, there is no precedent for “inconclusive data” being a reason for retraction for Elsevier or other publishers, or elsewhere in the scientific literature. To single out this one study for retraction is almost certainly due to the controversy following its publication. The repercussions of this directed action extend well beyond this single publication and raise several larger scientific questions. Will these data, which could well have been accepted by another journal, now be tainted beyond possibility for inclusion in usual weight-of-evidence reviews of the body of peer-reviewed science? Will the response to new science by interested parties now be focused on dueling attempts to have the paper retracted rather than on performing additional studies to replicate or refute the findings? Does this retraction strengthen the scientific process, or does it confuse scientific discourse with public relations?
Thermal conductivity is a measure of how easily heat passes through a particular type of material. Thermal conductivity is measured in watts per meter Celsius. Because the conductivity of materials can vary with temperature, no one single value exists for the conductivity of paper. However, under standard temperature and pressure of 25 degrees Celsius and 1 atmosphere, the thermal conductivity of paper is 0.05 watts per meter Celsius or 0.03 BTU ft/hour. Sq. ft 0F.
The paper was peer reviewed by scientists on behalf of the FCT and published accordingly. Hence, it initially met the threshold for publication. In our opinion, there must be a different threshold for forced retraction of the paper, and we believe that this paper did not reach that threshold. The COPE guidelines for retracting articles () provide four reasons for retraction: scientific misconduct/honest error, prior publication, plagiarism, or unethical research. None of these reasons apply to this particular article, and yet Elsevier, a member of COPE, chose to retract the paper.
- Disintegrating the paper in hot distilled water and determining the pH of the extract.- Disintegrating the paper in cold distilled water and determining the pH of the extract.
- Directly using a wet electrode on the paper surface.