Secondly, America became progressive because of the economic reforms introduced in the country. Many people were affected by the great world war and this affected the economy in America. Thus, the progressive era was marked as the period through which President Roosevelt greatly changed the economy to the better standards. He introduced federal laws on income tax and allowed capitalism thus led to increased economic development (Hillstrom 56). His tactics in politics greatly attributed to economic benefits and he introduced better working conditions whereby women were given rights for freedom especially in working institutions. He introduced better education programs and other services making America a progressive nation.
The progressive era in America began after the end of the World War I. Before the 19th century, many people in America faced many challenges including poor working conditions, poor laborers and slavery. However, the city became progressive when Lincoln Roosevelt became the president. There are diverse reasons for the city such as a central element in progressive America. First, there were many kinds of reforms in the social movement that led to gradual change in the American society. Several changes occurred during the progressive era in America especially the education systems, which changed from informal to formal. All citizens were given the privileges of getting better education regardless of their social class, gender, race and religion. The western social movements became inevitable through education programs thus led to urbanization and industrialization (Hillstrom 89).
The question of moral education was implicitly raised in the preceding paragraph. What is the effect on morals of the plan herein advocated? A full discussion is unfortunately impossible. Speaking for myself, however, I consider the possibilities for building moral character in a regime of purposeful activity one of the strongest points in its favor; and contrariwise the tendency toward a selfish individualism one of the strongest counts against our customary set-task alone-at-your-own-desk procedure. Moral character is primarily an affair of shared social relationships, the disposition to determine one’s conduct and attitudes with reference to the welfare of the group. This means psychologically, building stimulus-response bonds such that when certain ideas are present as stimuli certain approved responses will follow. We are then concerned that children get a goodly stock of ideas to serve as stimuli for conduct, that they develop good judgment for selecting the idea appropriate in a given case, and that they have firmly built such response bonds as will bring—as inevitably as possible—the appropriate conduct once the proper idea has been chosen. In terms of this (necessarily simplified) analysis we wish such school procedure as will most probably result in the requisite body of ideas, in the needed skill in judging a moral situation and in unfailing appropriate response bonds. To get these three can we conceive of a better way than by living in a social milieu which provides, under competent supervision for shared coping with a variety of social situations? In the school procedure here advocated children are living together in the pursuit of a rich variety of purposes, some individually sought, many conjointly. As must happen in social commingling occasions of moral stress will arise, but here—fortunately—under conditions that exclude extreme and especially—harmful cases. Under the eye of the skillful teacher the children as an embryonic society will make increasingly finer discriminations as to what is right and proper. Ideas and judgments come thus. Motive and occasion arise together; the teacher has but to steer the process of evaluating the situation. The teacher’s success—if we believe in democracy—will consist in gradually eliminating himself or herself from the success of the procedure.
The period of 1920s was the time whereby women became more unrestrained in the ways they enjoyed their lifestyles. Throughout history, women were regarded as people with fewer legal rights and motherhood was their profession thus men were more educated than women were. Various ways indicate how women defined their freedom in this period. First, it was termed as the flapper age for women. This is because of the way they dressed in short miniskirts, bobbed their hair and discarded their corsets (Materson 189).They started wearing make-ups, drank, smoked and attended parties where they danced and enjoyed all the kind of lifestyles. Others started driving automobiles whereas others became pilots. They became popular in sport activities such as tennis, swimming and golf.
How then does the purposeful act utilize the laws of learning? A boy is intent upon making a kite that will fly. So far he has not succeeded. The purpose is clear. This purpose is but the ‘set’ consciously and volitionally bent on its end. As set the purpose is the inner urge that carries the boy on in the face of hindrance and difficulty. It brings’readiness' to pertinent inner resources of knowledge and thought. Eye and hand are made alert. The purpose acting as aim guides the boy’s thinking, directs his examination of plan and material, elicits from within appropriate suggestions, and tests these several suggestions by their pertinency to the end in view. The purpose in that it contemplates a specific end defines success: the kite must fly or he has failed. The progressive attaining of success with reference to subordinate aims brings satisfaction at the successive stage stages of completion. Satisfaction; in detail and in respect of the whole by the automatic working of the second law of learning (Effect) fixes the several bonds which by their successive successes brought the finally successful kite. The purpose thus supplies the motive power, makes available inner resources, guides the process to its pre-conceived end and by this satisfactory success fixes in the boy’s mind anti-character the successful steps as part and parcel of one whole. The purposeful act does utilize the laws of learning.
It is to this purposeful act with the emphasis on the word purpose that I myself apply the term’project'. I did not invent the term nor did I start it on its educational career. Indeed, I do not know how long it has already been in use. I did, however, consciously appropriate the word to designate the typical unit of the worthy life described above. Others who were using the term seemed to me either to use it in a mechanical and partial sense or to be intending in a general way what I tried to define more exactly. The purpose of this article is to attempt to clarify the concept underlying the term as much as it is to defend the claim of the concept to a place in our educational thinking. The actual terminology with which to designate the concept is, as was said before, to my mind a matter of relatively small moment. If, however, we think of a project as a pro-ject, something pro-jected, the reason for its adoption may better appear.
However, a progressive classroom, be it a cave or college can inspire students to memorize facts, not because they have to, but rather because they want to for the betterment of humanity.
As the purposeful act is thus the typical unit of the worthy life in a democratic society, so also should it be made the typical unit of school procedure. We of America have for years increasingly desired that education be considered as life itself and not as a mere preparation for later living. The conception before us promises a definite step toward the attainment of this end. If the purposeful act be in reality the typical unit of the worthy life, then it follows that to base education on purposeful acts is exactly to identify the process of education with worthy living itself. The two become then the same. All the arguments for placing education on a life basis seem, to me at any rate, to concur in support of this thesis. On this basis education has become life. And if the purposeful act thus makes of education life itself, could we reasoning in advance expect to find a better preparation for later life than practice in living now? We have heard of old that“we learn to do by doing,” and much wisdom resides in the saying. If the worthy life of the coming day is to consist of well-chosen purposeful acts, what preparation for that time could promise more than practice now, under discriminating guidance, in forming and executing worthy purposes? To this end must the child have within rather large limits the opportunity to purpose. For the issues of his act he must—in like limits—be held accountable. That the child may properly progress, the total situation—all the factors of life, including comrades—speaking, if need be through the teacher, must make clear its selective judgment upon what he does, approving the better, rejecting the worse. In a true sense the whole remaining discussion is but to support the contention here argued in advance that education based on the purposeful act prepares best for life while at the same time it constitutes the present worthy life itself.
The term "constructivism" was adapted from cognitive psychology byeducators,and its meaning in educational contexts is different from its use inpsychology.E.D. Hirsch Jr. provided a useful definition in his book, , which begins as follows: